Cardiac arrest is one of the medical conditions, which are known to result into low or insufficient blood flow into the body of a patient. The process of executing therapeutic hypothermia on patients involves the use of a catheter, which is placed in the inferior vena cava through the femoral veins in the legs through a method known as invasive therapeutic hypothermia. Non-invasive therapeutic hypothermia involves an external application of a blanket that is made extremely cold by water. Strict adherence to the therapeutic hypothermia has been proved to reduce the level of risks for ischemic brain injuries that patients under such conditions of insufficient blood supply are exposed to. The development of therapeutic hypothermia to help reduce the levels of risks that patients recovering from cardiac arrest are exposed was developed by Greek physician Hippocrates when he advocated for the packing of wound soldiers in snow ice, a form of non-invasive therapeutic hypothermia. Studies into the application of therapeutic hypothermia in modern medicine began in 1945 when the first publication on the topic was made as documented by Storm, Steffen and Schefold, (2008). This paper will evaluate how induced therapeutic hypothermia affects the neurological functions and help post cardiac arrest patients recover. The impacts of the practice in reducing the development ischemic injury in cardiac arrest patients will also be evaluated. Literature review The aftermaths of cardiac arrest involves neurological injuries, which results into impairment of oxygen flow into the brain, causes anaerobic metabolism in the brain. As stated by Riana, Abella and Mary, (2006), anaerobic metabolism disrupts adenosine triphosphate dependent cellular pumps, which lead to generation of excess calcium and glutamate in the excretions. This results into excitation of the brain, which magnifies hypoxemia resulting into mitochondrial and cellular death. Disruption of blood brain barrier results into initial injury resulting into increased fluid flow into the brain resulting into worsens state of cerebral edema. This is exactly how persistent cardiac arrest result into increased level of neurological defects, a condition that can be arrested using therapeutic hypothermia. The application of therapeutic hypothermia results into counteractions of the neuroexcitations in the brain cells through process that stabilize the calcium and glutamate release resulting into decreased apoptosis in the brain. It also acts to stabilize the blood brain barrier resulting into reduced flow of fluids into the brain tissues thus reducing the instances of developing cerebral edema. Therapeutic hypothermia thus reduces the destructive mechanisms of cardiac arrest thus reducing the damaging impacts it may produce to the brain and the central nervous system according to Tsai, Barbut and Wang, (2008a). Based on Matthias, Fries and Rossaint (2012), therapeutic hypothermia is done following a three phase procedure, which includes induction, maintenance and re-warming which must be done under controlled environments to prevent potential adverse effects of the procedure. The induction phase enables the attainment of a patient’s target body temperature within the shortest time possible. This is done using solid ice packs, ice lavage or even
Therapeutic hypothermia impacts of neurological function of post cardiac arrest patients Introduction According to Gal, Slevak and Seidlova (2009), severe neurological impairments because of cardiac arrest with widespread cerebral ischemia are prevalent among residents of the United States today…
According to the American Association Guidelines, the procedure should only be done if the patient remains in a coma state following the return of spontaneous circulation. Numerous studies have been done to identify the risks and benefits associated with this procedure.
Especially the cervical spine is prone for further injury because of movements of the head and the most common practice is to immobilize cervical spine is using a cervical collar. Though several devices and techniques are being developed for cervical immobilization, it is yet unclear whether use of cervical collar during resuscitation and transport improves patient outcomes.
Other surgical site infections are exceedingly grave and may involve body tissues found under the skin, the organs or the implanted substance. It is therefore without doubt that surgical site infections represent a considerable portion of infections associated with health care.
Many patients undergoing cardiac arrest, ultimately survive as a result of resuscitation efforts but show a poor quality of neurological functioning due to ischemic injuries following hypoxia especially in brain.
This paper is going to conduct a review on past prognosis assessments on patients under therapeutic hypothermia treatment. The review is aimed at proving that therapeutic hypothermia does impact neurologic functions thus improving the conditions of patients. Over the years, therapeutic hypothermia has stood out as the most appropriate care that can be given to patients with neurologic outcomes one of them being cardiac arrest.
This very fact demands on the part of EMS professionals thorough theoretical knowledge about the pathophysiological processes involved in the sudden nature of cardiac arrest and skills and dexterity in management.
The specific feature of
The heart lies in the thorax of the body in an area called the mediastinum. This area is further divided into inferior and superior parts by a plane passing from the sternal angle anteriorly to the intervertebral disc between T4 and T5 posteriorly. The inferior mediastinum is classically subdivided into the middle, anterior and posterior parts.
It is necessary for all rescuers to understand the anatomy and pathophysiology of cardiac arrest so as to be able to save lives. Chest compression refers to the technique of restoring the cardiac activity manually in case of heart attack or cardiac arrest. The purpose of
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