The discussion will be based on the author’s perspective, available evidence and current practice. It shall discuss women’s options during births, especially where infants are in the breech position. This dissertation will further evaluate if the women’s choices with regards to delivery of the breech are significantly impacted by the deskilling of health professionals or by the actual risks of the procedure itself. Current practice, as supported by the NICE and RCOG Guidelines (2001) discourages women from having vaginal deliveries when their babies are presenting in a breech position. Many midwives have only ever experienced vaginal breech deliveries in a simulated environment. Since practice is now dominated by the opinion that the safest option for these babies is a caesarean section and the opportunities to gain experience in safe vaginal breech delivery are limited, the dominance of caesarean section is reinforced. This paper aims to highlight the evidence that underpins the current practice as well as investigate the emerging evidence that is the basis for certain midwives now considering breech vaginal birth to be a safe option. Historically vaginal deliveries were the chosen method for the delivery of babies with a cephalic or breech presentation. ...
he current indications for caesarean births in developed countries include breech babies along with foetal distress, malposition, malpresentations, placenta previa, and other related complications (Fischer, 2012). Some of these complicated births have been delivered vaginally even though the risk for these births has been considered significant. At present, the training for Obstetricians has mostly related to the delivery of breech babies via caesarean Section. This development has been re-evaluated by midwives because some midwives believe that obstetricians must equally train in normal deliveries of breech babies, especially as women’s options have been limited by the risks involved in the birth as well as the decreased skill of midwives (Jadoon, 2008). Breech presentation deliveries are deliveries where the foetus is at a longitudinal position, with either the buttocks or the feet presenting at the cervical area during delivery. This presentation is seen at about 3-4% of all term deliveries (Fischer, 2012). This type of presentation may be attributed to prematurity, uterine malformations, placenta praevia, multiple births, and sometimes foetal abnormalities (Fischer, 2012). Breech presentation is classified into: frank, complete, and footling. Frank breech is observed with hips flexed, knees extended; complete is seen with hips flexed and knees flexed; and footling or incomplete with one of both hips extended and foot presenting (Fischer, 2012). The issue of whether or not vaginal breech deliveries should be considered over Caesarean section is now also based on the skill of midwives. There are major concerns surrounding vaginal delivery of breech presentation and generally limited data on safe vaginal deliveries of a breech. There is also a lack of honesty on the ...
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Women’s Experiences of Labouring in Water. Although waterbirths and labouring in water have been common practices since the time of the pharaoh’s, there remains an absence of empirical research to substantiate its use in modern medicine. Through an exhaustive search of relevant peer-reviewed studies, this dissertation will provide an examination of women’s experiences labouring in water guided by recent evidentiary studies edifying the factual pros and cons of labouring in water as a means of avoiding the use of analgesics.
The scope and purpose of the research has been presented in the first chapter along with stating the aims, objectives and questions. The literature review revealed the fact that mobile government has been emerging as the latest trend in majority of developing nations and Oman has been no more an exception.
acy Systems 28 2.5 Interactive Tools for E-Democracy Systems 33 2.6 Success Factors for E-Government 35 2.7 SMS for Interaction with E-Government Systems 36 2.8 The WEBOCRAT E-Democracy System 37 2.9 Software for E-Democracy Systems 40 2.10 Chapter Overview 43 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 45 3.1 Introduction 45 3.2 Research Philosophy 47 3.3 Research Approach 51 3.4 Limitations of this Research 52 3.5 Chapter Overview 53 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 54 Chapter 5: CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND REFLECTION S 68 5.1 Conclusions 69 5.2 Recommendations 70 5.3 Reflections 71 Appendix A – Interview Questions for Exploring Delivery of Effective E-Government Systems for the Majlis A’Shur
The persons involved in project management collect information regarding customers’ necessities or product demand in the market; and try to manage the project effectively to improve the service delivery as a whole. According to Cross et al (n.d.), the project managers’ interactions with the people connect the people with the project management.
The research used quantitative methods of data collection and analysis and used a survey method of data collection. It involved 50 employees in the survey, five each from the ten selected stores. The stores and the employees were selected using judgemental convenience sampling method.
According to the paper more schools and training centres for midwifery and home nurse support were offered in various part of the country. Scholarships were even sponsored by the government for nurses to train in maternal and prenatal care. The sharing of knowledge continued until nurses became more involved in home births and in the delivery of home nursing support.
Participants. The participants in this research were 30 Iranian women (mean age =26.47 years old, sd = 2.39) living in Iran and 30 British women living in London (mean age = 27.67, sd = 3.49). Materials. An 18-item attitude questionnaire based on a Likert scale response ranging from 1 = strongly agree to 4 = strongly disagree was developed for the purpose of the study.
In 2012, the games was held in London and thus, it was the responsibility of London Organising Committee to prepare a well planned report regarding the actions that are to be taken before and after the Games so as to make the environment sustainable. Though the Sustainability Plan included lot aspects which were highlighted by the committee as the main issues and are serious enough to be looked upon, the sport-health relationship is regarded as the main aspect for the survey in the report.
In a study to determine the length of time the author found out that there was a significant time reduction in labor, especially the first part. He noted the benefits associated with water births as reduced pain during contractions, shorter labor periods compared to normal birth, reduced chances of using analgesics, as well as less episiotomies.