Advanced pathophysiology

Advanced pathophysiology Case Study example
Case Study
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What is the pathophysiology basis for the signs/symptoms and lab results that are seen in this case? The patient has a white blood cell count of 250 000 which higher than the normal of 3500-10500cells/mcL


The elevated WBC is from the proliferation of immature WBC which continue to increase, however do not mature (Harrison, 2011). The accumulation of immature white blood cells in the bone marrow and blood leads to the replacement of normal cells such as thrombocytes, which leads to thrombocytopenia and a disruption of blood clotting (Harrison, 2011). Therefore, this patient presents with gum bleeding and easy bruising. In addition, decreased levels of leucocytes also increase the patient’s vulnerability to bruising. The replacement of cells also leads to a decrease in the number of red blood cells which are responsible for oxygen transport. This in turn is the reason why the patient developed fatigue and shortness of breath may also have been present (Harrison, 2011). The splenomegaly occurs as a result of extamedullary hematopoiesis as the bone marrow becomes less competent. The reduction of red blood cells due to replacement also leads to paleness. Upper abdominal tenderness could be attributed to splenomegaly. Opportunistic infections that occur as a result of the comprised immune system may lead to arthalgia. Describe pathophysiology of ALL. Compare it with other leukemia forms in children ...
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