Obesity and Colon cancer Your name Institute Abstract Colon cancer is the third most common type of cancer according to worldwide estimates. There are several identified risk factors for colon cancer including environmental and genetic factors. Obesity which is defined as the body mass index and is considered as a major health problem worldwide is associated with increased risk of colon cancer…
In most cases a combination of inhibitors is necessary to maximize the efficacy of the drug treatment. The possible side-effects associated with these drugs is still under investigation. Thus at present the prognosis for colon cancer associated with obesity has been found to be poor, however the combinational use of inhibitors could change the current prognosis. Keywords: colon cancer, obesity, insulin, adipokines According to recent surveys colon cancer is the third most commonly occurring cancer in males and second in the case of females associated with a mortality rate of 608,700 (Chen, 2012). About 1.2 million people are diagnosed with this type of cancer every year (Whitlock, Gill, Birch, & Karmali, 2012). There are many causative factors involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer which include environmental factors such as a high-fat/ low-fiber dietary intake, genetic factors such as inherited or cellular genetic mutations, life style changes such as smoking, physical inactivity and obesity (Chen, 2012; Ma, Yang, Wang, Zhang, Shi, Zou, & Qin, 2013). Studies have shown a strong link between obesity and the incidence of colon cancer. Obesity, which is measured as the body mass index, is on a rise over the past few decades all over the world. The World Health Organization estimates show that about 10% of the world population is clinically obese (Whitlock, Gill, Birch, & Karmali, 2012). Obesity is associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and heart disease. These conditions increase the serum levels of cancer risk factors such as insulin, insulin-like growth-factor 1 (IGF-1), leptin, interleukin-6, 17 (IL-6, IL-17), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and decreases serum levels of adiponectin which is considered to indirectly protect against cancer (Chen, 2012; Van Kruijsdijk, van der Wall, & Visseren, 2009). The role of insulin and IGF-1 in the carcinogenic process has been supported by clinical studies. These factors in turn activate multiple signal pathways which can induce tumor growth. For example increased secretion of insulin and IGF-1 stimulate cancer growth by binding to their specific receptors and activate pathways that inhibit apoptosis and stimulate cell proliferation. IGF-1 stimulates the proliferation of cells by activating the signal pathways phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Ras/Raf mitogen activated protein kinase systems and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathways (STAT 3). IGF-1 is also involved in cell migration and invasion which favors cancer progression and metastasis (Chen, 2012; Van Kruijsdijk, van der Wall, & Visseren, 2009; Frezza, Wachtel, & Chiriva-Internati, 2006). Adipose tissue dysfunction in obese individuals plays a major role in promoting carcinogenesis by affecting important biochemical mechanisms such as insulin resistance, and production of adipokines and cytokines involved in inflammation. An increased leptin level which is secreted by the adipocytes in obese individuals is associated with the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. The leptin hormone is known to promote mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and inflammation and inhibit apoptosis (Van Kruijsdijk, van der Wall, & Visseren, 2009; Frezza, Wachtel, & Chiriva-Internati, 2006). Obesity is also associated with decreased levels of adipone ...
Cite this document
(“Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/nursing/108106-risk-factors-for-colon-cancer
(Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/108106-risk-factors-for-colon-cancer.
It begins with the growth of small polyps which can bleed and which in time can both cause cancer and narrowing of the lumen.The cancers can also spread to other parts of the body. The incidence of the condition rises after the age of 50. Dr Dennis Lee (1996) lists a number of possible causes. These include family history, a high fat diet and a history of ulcerative colitis. Lee states that it is thought that the breakdown of fats in the intestine produces carcinogens.
There may well be a chance that he or she is warned way before the disease reaches the stage where it cannot be treated. All this is a matter of luck rather than anything else. Cancer can occur in many forms for example liver cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer etc.
al. 2011). Specifically, about 72% of cases arise in the colon and about 28% in the rectum. Modifiable and non- modifiable risk factors are associated with this type of cancer and are seen as the backbone of its preventive measures. Actually, colorectal cancer is a preventable type of cancer and is often treatable especially when diagnosed at an early stage.
Cancer develops from any body organ, skin, breast or nerve tissues. Cancer can be caused by radiation, genetic problems, smoking, among others. Prostate, colon, breast, cervical, brain and lung cancer are the most common types of cancer with lung cancer being the most common cause of cancer-related deaths.
Cancer describes diseases whose growth of cells is beyond control. There are numerous categories of cancer with each category exuding distinct tendencies based on areas initially affected. Scientists report that more than one hundred cancer types exist in the world today.
Colon cancer is mainly caused by lifestyle of individuals and their age, poor lifestyles and eating habits especially those in the developed world lead to the increased risk of getting colon cancer, in addition, individuals who are advanced in their age, from 50 years are also at a higher chance of contracting the disease.
These have also been observed in the developing countries which have experienced change in their lifestyle. This has led to research on what makes cancer of the colon more prevalent in obese individuals. There has been speculations that weight loss diets used can be a cause as well as the formation of carcinogenic or inflammations due to food bypassing the small intestines.
While finding a linkage between cancer and diet, the cancer researchers were able to find an interesting linkage between consumption of meat and the incidence of cancer. It was observed that cancer was much less probable to develop amongst individuals who avoided meat.
It is also found throughout the world and manifests itself even in other animals and plants.
There are a variety of methods of treatment which includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, monoclonal antibody treatment, immunotherapy and alternative treatment.
The author states that the various interventions for obesity are eating a well-balanced diet, including fruits in the diet, avoiding fast foods and implementing population-wide interventions through policy changes. He outlines the relationship that exists between obesity and heart diseases. He provides useful statistics to support his arguments.
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Risk Factors for Colon Cancer for FREE!