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Annotated bibilography on evidence based research-pressure ulcers - Essay Example

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Annotated bibilography on evidence based research-pressure ulcers

The available literature identifies its risk factors as: physiological alterations, diabetes, low tissue oxygen tension, nutritional deficiency, contractures, and paralysis. This annotated bibliography examines the effectiveness of different treatment and prevention strategies used in hospital settings. The available statistics suggest that the condition mainly affects male adults, and 3-10% of the hospitalized population. The risk of pressure ulcer is also high among neurologically impaired patients, and persons disabled by the spinal cord injuries. According to Mendez (2004) prevention is a key component of managing pressure ulcers, and the presentation of this condition occurs in 4 stages starting with erythema and ending with the infection of the underlying bone or muscle. Stage 1 is characterized by the reddening of the skin while in stage 2, the skin blisters form open sores. In the third stage, a crater is formed while in the final stage, the damages extend to the tendons, joints, muscles and bones. Some of the treatment method used include: de-pressurizing of the affected areas, surgical reconstruction, administration of and antibiotics. While treatment of the affected patients should be administered as soon as possible, prevention should be the first priority for the population as risk of this condition. In this regard, patients on bed rest should be checked frequently for pressure sores. Symptoms to watch out for include: red skin, open sores, blisters, foul smells from the ulcers, and swollen skin. For early detection, the caregiver should consider giving the patient a head to toe examination, and should pay close attention to the following areas: buttocks, elbows, hips, heels, ankles, shoulders, and back. For prevention of this condition, persons at risk should change positions once in every 2hours and use appropriate tool to cushion the affected areas. Most importantly, they should eat well balanced meals, drink lots of water, exercise regularly, use creams to protect the skin and keep the skin dry and clean at all times. Reddy, M., Sedeep, S., & Rochon, P. (2006). Preventing pressure ulcers: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(8), 974-984 This article which is written by competent authors seeks to examine the adverse health outcomes and treatment costs associated with pressusre ulcers. The objective of the article is to review the evidence examining interventions to prevent pressure ulcers. The systematic review utilizes sources from the MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL. All the databases are well known for publishing credible article dealing with different medical condition. The search strategy identified 763 citations, of which 59 randomized control trial were selected. As suggested by Moore and Cowman (2007), systematic review should have elaborate schemes to prevent bias, and maximize precision of the data obtained. At the same time, it should have a detailed exclusion and inclusion criteria, use clear research questions and adequately address the challenge of assessing the methodology quality of the selected studies. If possible, the systematic review should depend on current and credible secondary sources. In this case, of the citations identified, 650 were excluded since they were not randomized clinical trials, while 53 did not have adequate information about the outcome measures. The ...Show more

Summary

PRESSURE ULCERS: TREATMENT AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES Name: Course: Professor: Institution: City and State: Date: As suggested by Mendez (2004), pressure ulcers result from uninterrupted pressure leading to localized areas of ischemia, tissue inflammation and tissue anoxia…
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