There are various factors that play a role in the onset of disease. However, therapeutic and non-pharmacological management plans can help the patients in the long run. Scientists theorize that the worldwide increase in pollution due to the industrialization has caused a significant rise in the disease. The major implications and occurrence to treatment ratio along with the various strategies for controlling it are discussed further on. The incidence rates provides the information about the onset of the disease along with the probability of developing a disease. The incidence rate of asthma ranges between 2.65 to 4 per 1000 people annually. The condition is more commonly found in children less than five years of age and among boys as compared to girls. In childhood, the rate is estimated to be about 8.1 to 14 every 1000 persons for boys and 4.3 to 9 every 1000 persons for girls. Annually it is estimated that this rate of incidence is 2.1 every 1000 persons over 25 years of age. CDC reports that asthma continues to be the major public health concern with a large financial impact on families and health care system. Internationally UK is the highest ranking countries in terms of asthma prevalence. The peak prevalence occurs between the ages of 5 and 15 and falls thereafter the age range of 55-64 years, after which it starts to rise again. Asthma diagnoses have recently became more common since 1950’s. Most of the children wheeze in their early life in response to the respiratory tract infection but most appear to grow out of it by the time they go to school. It is also to be noted that a few children will continue to wheeze and develop interval symptoms similar to atopic asthma (Worldallergy.org. 2013). The most common symptoms that are accompanied in asthma are coughing (especially at night or during exercise), trouble breathing, a tight feeling in the chest and wheezing sound. Some people may have prolonged symptom free periods while others experience some symptoms every day. Loss of breath, exhaustion, wheezing, coughing, upper tract respiratory infections, sore throat and runny rose are some other less frequent signs. The underlying cause of asthma is bronchoconstriction due to the allergic inflammation of the passage ways. The inflammation process can be histologically seen. There is a hyper secretion of sub epithelial fibrosis, mucus hyper secretion and infiltration of the various inflammatory cells. The immuno-histopathologic features of asthma include the infiltration of the neutrophils, lymphocytes, epithelia cells and mast cell activation. An allergen triggers the type 1 hypersensitivity by activating the IgE antibodies. In normal individuals, the pathogen is phagocytised by the antigens stimulating a low TH1 response. In allergic people, the pathogen or pollutant induces the TH2 mediated response through the release of IL-4. This interleukin 4 induces the production of IgE antibodies which then attach to the mast cells receptors upon the secondary exposure of the allergen. Their attachment with mast cells triggers the release of the histamine which causes bronchoconstriction. The TH2 cells can directly induce the type 4 hypersensitivity through the production of interleukin 13. These interleukins cause the goblet cell hyperplasia, increased production of mucus and smooth muscle contraction. TH2 lymphocytes
Asthma is a condition in which the air passage way tubes get narrowed and swollen. These tubes are termed as bronchioles. This narrowing of the airways produces excessive mucus which may cause difficulty in breathing along with a wheezing sound. In the presence of narrowing of the respiratory canal, lungs will not be able to hold a proper amount of oxygen required for the purpose of breathing…
The purpose of this research is to investigate the following: drugs from natural sources; plants as a source of drugs ; microorganism drug sources; uses of natural products in drugs; drug design by computer modeling and strengths of computer modeling in drug design. The computer modeling in drug design holds a massive potential for the pharmaceutical industry
(Reves et al. 1985). 1. The chemical name of the drug is 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine. 2. The approved indications of the drug a) Intravenous administration along with an opoid is done for sedation and for the induction of the general anaesthesia and for ventilation of the sedated patients.
DEFINITION ESSAY: PHARMACOLOGY SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED TO: DATE OF SUBMISSION: INSTITUTE: Pharmacology is one of the multiple fields of study that fall under the broad umbrella of medicine. Other terms, closely related to pharmacology include pharmacy, pharmacist and pharmaceutical.
In turn, TGA is a trifurcation of Monitoring and Compliance Group, Market Authorization Group and the Regulatory Support Group (AGDHA, 2012, p. 1). Section 2: National Medicines Policy and the Quality Use of Medicine 2. Developing and Implementing a National Drug Policy: The Key Components of a National Drug Policy The National Drug Policy (NDP) is very important because of the pivotal roles it has continued to play, for the benefit of the public, the healthcare services sector and the government.
No inhalation of the spray should take place. An initial one-metered dose ought to be sprayed below the tongue at an attack’s onset, followed by another metered dose within a period of five minutes should pain relief not occur. It is recommended that it should not exceed two metered doses.
Absorption of the drug is dependent upon the dose total, duration of exposure, concentration of the dose and the site of exposure (Kwan, 2001). The drug absorbed well in the gastrointestinal system but undergoes extensive first pass hepatic transformation.
She also noticed swelling around her ankles, but attributed it to the demands of being on her feet all day. After migrating to Britain her shortness of breath began to intensify. The condition worsened until she was
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