Intravenous Paracetamol to manage pain

Intravenous Paracetamol to manage pain       Research Proposal example
Masters
Research Proposal
Nursing
Pages 17 (4267 words)
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Patients are bound to experience pain after the effect of anaesthesia given before surgery is finally gone. White et al (2010) had reported a result of surveys in Europe and the USA, stating the need to improve the quality of managing pain after surgeries…

Introduction

Patients are bound to experience pain after the effect of anaesthesia given before surgery is finally gone. White et al (2010) had reported a result of surveys in Europe and the USA, stating the need to improve the quality of managing pain after surgeries. The practice then was to use opioids which have multiple adverse effects (AEs): constipation, urinary retention, vomiting/nausea, allergic reactions, confusion, sedation, respiratory depression, and hypotension. These AEs increased the cost of hospitalization and delayed the recovery of patients. A better way of managing pain was then under clinical trials for 15 years. It involved the use of analgesics that require less opioids. There was no FDA approved Intravenous Acetaminophen at that time. Cadence Pharmaceuticals Inc. patented the first I.V. Paracetamol in July 8, 2011 (US SEC 2011) and produced Ofirmev which, until the present, does not have a competitor worldwide due to the recognized protection for intellectual property. This gathered evidence about the efficacy and safety of using Ofirmev (the only available US FDA approved Intravenous Acetaminophen in the market), how it benefits patients, and actually improved the quality of pain management. There were evidences based on actual clinical trials with patients that proved the efficacy and safety of Intravenous Paracetamol to neonates, infants, children, adolescents, adults, and even the elderly with age 65 years old and above, for mild, moderate, and severe cases of pain, especially postoperative pain ...
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