There are many studies and intensive research is underway in order to identify the most important factors that are the reason for the constant increase of the incidence of breast cancer in the last several decades. The results and information’s from this research should help us reduce the morbidity and mortality from breast cancer and increase the self-awareness of the general population about the risks for this disease.
In this study we will conduct a systematic research on the risk and other factors that are the most important factors in the etiology of breast cancer and also we will discuss the challenges of effective screening and treatment of breast cancer.
Breast cancer is malignant neoplasm that is originating from the tissues of the breast. It has significance as one of the most common cancers in the population that almost exclusively affects the female population, however in small percentages this malignancy is present in the male population also (less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer) (Florescu et al. 2011). Breast cancer is the most common type of invasive malignancy that affects women and contributes up to 23% of all invasive cancers that affect female population worldwide. It is registered that in year 2008 13.7% of cancer mortality in the female population in the world was caused by breast cancer or 6% of all cancer mortality worldwide (men and women) was caused by breast cancer (GLOBOCAN 2008). These numbers are alarming and show that breast cancer has severe impact on the global morbidity and mortality especially on the female population. It is also alarming that incidences of breast cancer are constantly increasing during the last three decades and this tendency is maintained till the resent day (Louwman et al 2008). It is believed that this is caused by the modern way of life and the changes that appeared in the habits and diets of modern way of living, changes in the reproductive behavior of the female population and other factors (Dignam et al 2003). This fact can be elaborated more clearly if we understand that the incidence of breast cancer is higher in western, developed countries and in countries that accept western way of lifestyle. For example incidences of breast cancer in population of 100 000 in western Europe is 78, in North America is 90 and these rates are significantly higher when compared to eastern Asia with 18 cases per 100 000 population, in sub-Saharan Africa 22 etc. (Stewart and Kleihues 2003). United States has the highest incidence of breast cancer in the world with 128 new cases of breast cancer on 100 000 women and in United States breast cancer is the second most common cancer after the skin cancer and the second most common cause of cancer mortality after lung cancer (American Cancer Society 2007). As we can see from the above statistics breast cancer has significant effect on the mortality in the population worldwide but especially in the developed countries. 3. Risk factors for breast cancer 3.1. Unchangeable risk factors for breast cancer There are many factors that is believed are the risen for the increase of the incidence of breast cancer in developed countries. In order to understand these factors we will look at the risk factors that are found to be associated with increased incidence of brea