The article operates mainly based on research questions which can be stated as follows: Whether the bioavailability is influenced by gastrointestinal absorption, first pass hepatic extraction or both? To achieve this goal the paper will determine and state the oral bioavailability.
hat these other common drugs either match in action the effects of morphine when acted upon by the enzymes, or they increase the effectiveness of the enzymes resulting in a faster, or more concentrated catalytic effect (“Drugs.com”, 2011). In the case of lasix, which includes a psychotherapeutic and CNS-active agent the patient might experience hypotensive effects when the treatment is first administered or if either of the drugs dosage is increased. There is also a coadministration factor with vasodilators and alpha-blockers that can increase blood pressure and othostasis. This interaction is not consistent enough across all patients to come to a conclusion as to why this happens, but careful monitoring of any patient on this type of treatment method is advised (Hammack and Loprinzi, 1994). iii. Note the clinical consequences of each of the interactions (e.g. increases the plasma concentration of Drug B leading to an enhanced pharmacological effect and toxicity). In all of the drugs in the previous section (except lasix) the concern is that the drugs, when combined with morphine have an additive or synergetic effect on the toxicity and potency of both drugs thereby increasing effectiveness as well as possible side effects depending on how well individual patients metabolize the morphine. Factors that would need to be considered would include type of illness, health of the liver, enzyme production and any built up tolerance to either medication (American Pain Society, 1999). Lasix can interact with elements such as alpha blockers or vasodilators which would put more stress on the heart due to increased blood flow and/or respiratory system (American Pain Society, 1999). Section 3. Drug absorption For morphine: a. Determine and state the oral bioavailability...
The study has shown that morphine is metabolized to M6G which is a potent analgesic thereby increasing the effectiveness of the drug in some situations. As a rule, the metabolism of morphine comes through uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) enzymes which are found in the liver. The enzymes form active analgesic metabolites and in some cases toxic metabolites as well. This would indicate that environmental factors that could inhibit or increase the effectiveness of morphine would include conjoint use of other drugs that reduce or inhibit the effect of liver enzymes; liver disease or a liver dysfunction and any drugs that can increase enzyme levels in the liver itself. According to the AHFS drug information the bioavailability is influenced by gastrointestinal absorption but the amount of bioavailability depends on the method that is used to administer it. In reality the bioavailability is almost 90% first pass hepatic extraction. This is supported by literature that suggests that the clearance rate for morphine is longer in those individuals who have hepatic impairment. In most cases the morphine is metabolized in the liver and dispersed through urination. The rate of conventional oral preparations (immediate release) and the extended release oral versions are about the same but there is a difference in peak plasma concentrations which are longer and lower with the extended release oral preparation. ...
Cite this document
(“Morphine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/nursing/1816-morphine
(Morphine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words)
“Morphine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/1816-morphine.
The study found significant increase in anesthesiologists' use of any preventive strategy in the study hospital whereas at the control hospital, there was a smaller but significant increase in anesthesiologists' use of any preventive measure.
Opioids such as heroin and morphine exert their effects by mimicking naturally occurring substances, called endogenous opioid peptides or endorphins. The diverse functions of this system include the best known sensory role, prominent in inhibiting responses to painful stimuli; a modulatory role in gastrointestinal, endocrine, and autonomic functions; an emotional role, evident in the powerful rewarding and addicting properties of opioids; and a cognitive role in the modulation of learning and memory.
Opioids such as heroin and morphine exert their effects by mimicking naturally occurring substances, called endogenous opioid peptides or endorphins. The diverse functions of this system include the best known
For example: Pancreatic cancer is the disease from which Mr. Mills is experiencing and due to the disease he is experiencing immense pain and the physician, Mr Robinson, administers morphine to decrease
The case report says that Mrs. J has been smoking two packs of cigarettes a day for the last 40 years and is not ready to abstain from the habit yet. Hence, no treatment or medication could bring the desired results unless the patient is ready
ed from underground laboratories and then passed along to distributors on the streets, the vast majority of illegal drug usage and addiction to these drugs can be traced back to the medical and pharmacological fields. In fact, what is happened is that doctors within the past
The pulse is thereafter amplified until a recordable contraction can be achieved (The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2009).
The ileum is reactive on transmural stimulation due to the activity of the enteric nervous system lining (US National
Overprescribing is an error that results from administering a higher dose than the normal to the patients. It may result in adverse effects such as heart attacks or respiratory arrests such as the case highlighted in this report.
An infant received ten times the amount of
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Morphine for FREE!