According to Weaver (2007), there are two types of breast cancers. One is the ductal breast cancer that takes place in ducts connecting the lobes and the nipple. Weaver (2007) said that this is about 80% of the breast cancers. In contrast, lobular breast cancer that takes place in the lobes where milk production occurs accounts from 10 to 15% of cancer patients (Weaver, 2007).
Diagnosis. Diagnosis is “the process of finding the nature of the disorder” (British Medical Association, 2008, p. 170). In executing diagnosis, a medical professional “listens to a patient’s account of his or her illness and a physical examination is usually involved” and “tests may be ordered after the formation of a provisional diagnosis” (British Medical Association, 2008, p. 170). Breast cancer is suspected when a lump is discovered in breast self-examination or mammography (British Medical Association, 2008). However, doctors usually make the diagnosis of a breast cancer based on the results of a biopsy ordered on the patient (British Medical Association, 2008).
Pathophysiology. Pathophysiology is “the study of the disease on body functions” (British Medical Association, 2008, p. 436). The current knowledge on the pathophysiology of breast cancers is that the condition emerges after a series of molecular changes at the cellular level that result in the “outgrowth and spread of breast ephithelial cells with immortal features and uncontrolled growth” (Swart, 2011, second paragraph)....
Etiology. Etiology or aetiology means the “group of conditions which form the cause of any disease” (Marcovitch, 2005, p. 252). It also means “that part of medical science dealing with the causes of the disease” (Marcovitch, 2005, p. 16). Based on the work of Swart (2011), it seems that the most important etiological knowledge on breast cancer at present is that the etiology for breast cancer is not random but separable based on “distinct molecular and cellular origins” (Swart, 2011, 3rd paragraph). Further, according to Swart (2011, 3rd paragraph), based on the current etiology on breast cancer, thinking on the risks factors, prevention, and treatment strategies are now changing. Clinical manifestations. Clinical manifestation or signs refer to “the physical manifestations of an illness elicited by a doctor when examining a patient—for example, a rash, lump, swelling, fever or altered physical functions such as a reflex” (Marcovitch, 2005, p. 143). In the case of breast cancer, one the clinical manifestations can be a “painless lump” (British Medical Association, 2008, p. 94). Other symptoms “may include a dark discharge from the nipple, retraction (indentation) of the nipple, and an area of dimpled, creased skin over the lump” (British Medical Association, 2008, p. 94). Defining the Role of a Breast Cancer Nurse One concept on the role or intervention of the nursing profession among breast cancer patients is the one articulated by St. Vincent Medical Center (2008) pertaining to a “Breast Cancer Nurse Navigator.” According to the Vincent Medical Center (2008, 1st paragraph), a Breast Cancer Nurse Navigator “assist breast cancer patients and their families find