The treatment for cancer differs from people to people (Weaver, 2007). It is fairly common that a mastectomy may be performed when breast-conserving therapies do not work or will put the cancer patient at risk (Weaver, 2007).
According to Weaver (2007), there are two types of breast cancers. One is the ductal breast cancer that takes place in ducts connecting the lobes and the nipple. Weaver (2007) said that this is about 80% of the breast cancers. In contrast, lobular breast cancer that takes place in the lobes where milk production occurs accounts from 10 to 15% of cancer patients (Weaver, 2007).
Diagnosis. Diagnosis is “the process of finding the nature of the disorder” (British Medical Association, 2008, p. 170). In executing diagnosis, a medical professional “listens to a patient’s account of his or her illness and a physical examination is usually involved” and “tests may be ordered after the formation of a provisional diagnosis” (British Medical Association, 2008, p. 170). Breast cancer is suspected when a lump is discovered in breast self-examination or mammography (British Medical Association, 2008). However, doctors usually make the diagnosis of a breast cancer based on the results of a biopsy ordered on the patient (British Medical Association, 2008).
Pathophysiology. Pathophysiology is “the study of the disease on body functions” (British Medical Association, 2008, p. 436). The current knowledge on the pathophysiology of breast cancers is that the condition emerges after a series of molecular changes at the cellular level that result in the “outgrowth and spread of breast ephithelial cells with immortal features and uncontrolled growth” (Swart, 2011, second paragraph). ...