The issues relating to this case study are the patient’s mental status and age. A minor must present a consent from the Guardian, unless it is an emergency situation where life is at risk (Staunton and Chiarella, 2003: 118). The New South Wales “Children and Young Persons (Care and protection) Act, 1998” defines a child (except for the purposes of employment) as a person 16 years of age and a young person as someone aged 16 or over but under 18’ (Staunton and Chiarella, 2003: 120). A child can give consent to treatment if the child is capable of understanding the nature and consequences of the treatment (Staunton and Chiarella, 2003: 120). However, in New South Wales, a child aged 14 who has no guardian, has been accepted, if the child is capable of understanding the medical and dental treatment, for his best benefit (Staunton and Chiarella, 2003: 120). First language other than English in which the patient or guardian needs to sign the consent can be an issue, at times. In such a case, a legal interpreter needs to be arranged to describe procedure (Hamlin et al.,2009: 33). However, in Lie’s case, it is an emergency situation and his level of consciousness is decreasing and he requires emergency intubation. Therefore, no parental consent is required. (Staunton and Chiarella, 2003: 122).Mr Paul‘s consent issues include the patient’s level of consciousness, life - threatening emergencies, mental status, medical condition and language.