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Health promotion

These strategies are supported by five priority action areas as outlined in the Ottawa Charter for health promotion; build healthy public policy, create supportive environments for health, strengthen community action for health, develop personal skills and re-orient health services. Three of the most common health problems that affect people include cervical cancer, obesity and Hypertension (HTN). Cervical Cancer Considered a prevalent condition among the immigrant Americans, cervical cancer is associated with numerous risk factors; against which campaign are fostered to curb the its effects. Although vaccination against cervical cancer is available, timely testing and screening aid in the prevention and management; ultimately reducing the incidence by 80%. Rampant cases in the US are reported among the Vietnamese and non-Latina women immigrants largely associated with limited access to Pap testing. Drastic measures to curb the disparities include awareness campaigns, encouraging administration of primary care by PCPs, and increase patient-provider communication. Cervix in relation to upper part of vagina and posterior portion of uterus The cervix is the narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top of the vagina. Most cancers of the cervix are squamous cell carcinomas which are in the flattened epithelial cells that line the cervix. Symptoms such as pelvic pain, heavy bleeding from the vagina, leaking of urine or faeces from the vagina, back pain, leg pain, single swollen leg, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, and bone fractures indicate advanced cervical cancer (Green & Kreuter, 1991). Certain risk factors according to the American cancer society include: Chlamydia infection, multiple pregnancies, exposure to the hormonal drug diethylstilbestrol stress and stress related disorders, HPV infection, smoking, HIV infection, diatary factors, hormonal contraception, and family history of cervical cancer. Other risk factors especially for young persons are: early age at first intercourse and first pregnancy, compounded by early use of oral contraceptives. There has not been any definitive evidence to support the claim that circumcision of the male partner reduces the risk of cervical cancer, although some researchers say there is compelling epidemiological evidence that men who have been circumcised are less likely to be infected with HPV. However, in men with low-risk sexual behaviour and monogamous female partners, circumcision makes no difference to the risk of cervical cancer (Green & Kreuter, 1991). According to Pham, et al (2003), biopsy procedures is an effective screening test, confirmation of the diagnosis of cervical cancer which is done through colposcopy aided by dilute acetic acid like vinegar solution to highlight abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix. Precancerous lesions are exposed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia the potential precursor to cervical cancer which is often diagnosed by a pathologist. For premalignant dysplastic changes the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grading is used. The subtypes of cancer include; squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumour, glassy cell carcinoma, villoglandular adenocarcinoma. Non-carcinoma malignancies which can rarely occur in the cervix include; melanoma and lymphoma. According to Mock, et al (2007), prevention of cervical cancer ...Show more

Summary

Health promotion Health promotion is the provision of information and education to individuals, families and communities that encourage family unity, community commitment and traditional spirituality that make positive contributions to their health status…
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