StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Chronic pancreatitis - Term Paper Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample
Chronic pancreatitis

General Description Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is a heterogeneous, progressive disorder of the pancreas characterized by a spectrum of symptoms pain, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, and pancreatic damage leading to significant loss of both endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas (Witt and associates, 2007; DiMagno & Dimagno, 2006). Pathology involves fibrosis in the pancreatic parenchyma that manifests irregularly. Other organs in vicinity are also affected as consequence of the disease that may commence as an individual or a group of symptoms resulting from functional impairment of pancreas. The major clinical symptom of disease is recurring or persistent pain within the abdomens. The chief cause of CP in western world is alcohol abuse leading to alcoholic calcific pancreatitis (ACP). The other form of CP known as tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP) prevalent in tropical countries is of uncertain etiology (Lee, 2011). Based on the risk factors CP is classified by the TIGAR-O (Toxic-metabolic, Idiopathic, Genetic, Autoimmune, Recurrent and severe acute, Obstructive) classification system (Nair tet al., 2007). Figure 1: Anatomy of the pancreas ( Pancreas: Normal Physiology Pancreas is retroperitoneal structure in upper abdomen that can broadly be divided into head, body and tail (figure 1). Major portion of pancreatic tissue comprises of acini (80%) that are responsible for the exocrine functions of the pancreas. Groups of acini form spherical lobules that are interspersed with connective tissue. The central ducts of each lobule in which the secretions of the surrounding acinar cells accumulate, join to extralobular ducts that finally drain in to the main pancreatic duct. The main pancreatic duct carrying the secreted digestive enzymes enters the hepatopancreatic ampulla along with bile duct. At the duodenal papilla the enzymes enter the duodenum (Adda et al., 1984). The endocrine functions of the pancreas are performed by the richly vascularized islets of Langerhans. The islets of Langerhans comprise of beta, alpha and delta cells that secrete hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin respectively. The most abundant beta cells (73-75%) are centrally located and are surrounded by alpha cells (18-20%) and delta cells (4-6%). The rich vascularization allows for the transfer of hormones from the islets while the specific arrangement of the alpha, beta and delta cells allows paracrine regulation of hormones. Thus high concentrations of the insulin secreted from the central beta cells inhibit glucagon release from the peripheral alpha cells. The venous blood flow from the islets of langerhans reaches the hepatic portal vein, rendering the liver the prime target for the impact of pancreatic hormones. The rich innervations in the pancreas ensure the release of several neurotransmitters in the pancreas that regulate the release and concentrations of hormones (Case, 2006). During normal physiology, in basal state, the secreted pancreatic fluid is mildly alkaline comprising of small quantity of proteins. Gastric distension and acid production during eating stimulate duodenal S cells causing the release of secretin. Under the influence of the secretin, a large quantity of the bicarbonate rich watery liquid or the hydraulic secretion is released from the ductal cells of the smaller ducts. During the postprandial stages, ...Show more


CHRONIC PANCREATITIS Case A 65 year old man with persistent lower abdominal pain and jaundice was detected with elevated levels of hepatobiliary enzymes. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a diffuse hypoechoic swelling of the pancreas. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) exhibited an enhancement of pancreatic parenchyma with inhomogenous staining…
Author : wildermanandrew
Chronic pancreatitis essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the term paper on your topic
"Chronic pancreatitis"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Chronic Diseases
However, they can be prevented and controlled. In the United States and around the world, the statistics is quite alarming. The number of deaths associated with these chronic diseases is increasing. The severity that these diseases pose on a national and global level prompts the government and countries worldwide to adopt action plan and policies to educate people about the prevention and control of these chronic diseases.
10 pages (2500 words) Term Paper
Alcohol and Alcoholic Dietary Patterns
According to the paper alcoholics often experience the deficiency of vitamins and proteins, especially vitamin A, which may lead to liver disease and other disorders related to alcohol. Furthermore, alcohol is broken down in the liver by both the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme and by the enzyme system called microsomal ethanol–oxidizing system. This generates toxic products like acetaldehyde and potentially damaging, and highly reactive oxygen–containing molecules.
10 pages (2500 words) Term Paper
As these cells increase in number and when they gather in the bone marrow they obstruct the formation and development of other types of blood cells. When they move around the body, they gather in various places and as a result cause swelling or pain. The leukemia cells do not die and they collect the normal white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
5 pages (1250 words) Term Paper
Varicose Veins and Epidemiology
“Chronic venous insufficiency is primarily the result of sustained ambulatory venous hypertension, which in turn arises from superficial or deep venous reflux with or without deep vein obstruction” (Bradbury, 2010). “Established risk factors for chronic venous insufficiency and varicosities are as follows: old age, female gender, and pregnancy, family history of venous disease, obesity, and occupations associated with orthostasis” (Beebe-Dimmer et al, 2005).
5 pages (1250 words) Term Paper
Obesity and Stress Term Paper
It is almost common knowledge that stress, either constant or quick, can induce risky body and mind disorders. Immediate disorders include nervousness, anxiety, tension, dizzy spells and sleeplessness. Generally, stress leads to a state of over-activated (ANS) autonomic nervous system as the body tries to react to a perceived state of danger.
6 pages (1500 words) Term Paper
Chronic Pain Management and Nurse Practitioners
St., 2010). Chiefly, the health care economic issues and trends have a lot of implications for patients and advanced practice nursing, considering the many barriers that hinder the efficiency with which advanced practice nurses manage and treat chronic pain.
4 pages (1000 words) Term Paper
Case study
k investigation as follows: preparation, ensuring that the occurrence is an outbreak, verifying the diagnosis, setting the definition of a working case, finding cases systematically, recording data, perform descriptive epidemiology, developing hypotheses, evaluating hypotheses
2 pages (500 words) Term Paper
Chronic Kidney Disease
The synthesis of vitamin D also becomes impaired, which consequently affects the homeostasis of calcium ions and the overall wellbeing of bones. Cardiac complications often arise from chronic renal failure
10 pages (2500 words) Term Paper
Effects of bronchitis
Acute infectious bronchitis is mostly caused by viral pathogens in individuals with no underlying lung condition and a small number of cases by Mycoplasma, Legionella etc. In such cases, medical intervention is rarely sought and symptomatic relief or
3 pages (750 words) Term Paper
Research critique part 1
This is the area that contributes to the research question (Harris and Lloyd, 2008). The paper was done by the National Preventative Health Task Force on the role played by nurses in preventing the risk to chronic
3 pages (750 words) Term Paper
Hire a pro to write
a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment