The following term paper "Chronic Pancreatitis" deals with the chronic disease. According to the text, Chronic Pancreatitis is a heterogeneous, progressive disorder of the pancreas characterized by a spectrum of symptoms pain, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, etc…
General Description Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is a heterogeneous, progressive disorder of the pancreas characterized by a spectrum of symptoms pain, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, and pancreatic damage leading to significant loss of both endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas (Witt and associates, 2007; DiMagno & Dimagno, 2006). Pathology involves fibrosis in the pancreatic parenchyma that manifests irregularly. Other organs in the vicinity are also affected as consequence of the disease that may commence as an individual or a group of symptoms resulting from functional impairment of pancreas. The major clinical symptom of the disease is recurring or persistent pain within the abdomens. The chief cause of CP in the western world is alcohol abuse leading to alcoholic calcific pancreatitis (ACP). The other form of CP known as tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP) prevalent in tropical countries is of uncertain etiology (Lee, 2011). Based on the risk factors CP is classified by the TIGAR-O (Toxic-metabolic, Idiopathic, Genetic, Autoimmune, Recurrent and severe acute, Obstructive) classification system (Nair tet al., 2007). Figure 1: Anatomy of the pancreas (http://www.britannica.com/bps/media-view/68636/1/0/0) Pancreas: Normal Physiology Pancreas is a retroperitoneal structure in the upper abdomen that can broadly be divided into head, body, and tail (figure 1). A major portion of pancreatic tissue comprises of acini (80%) that are responsible for the exocrine functions of the pancreas. Groups of aciniform spherical lobules that are interspersed with connective tissue. The central ducts of each lobule in which the secretions of the surrounding acinar cells accumulate, join to extralobular ducts that finally drain into the main pancreatic duct. The main pancreatic duct carrying the secreted digestive enzymes enters the hepatopancreatic ampulla along with bile duct. At the duodenal papilla, the enzymes enter the duodenum (Adda et al., 1984). The endocrine functions of the pancreas are performed by the richly vascularized islets of Langerhans. The islets of Langerhans comprise of beta, alpha and delta cells that secrete hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin respectively. The most abundant beta cells (73-75%) are centrally located and are surrounded by alpha cells (18-20%) and delta cells (4-6%). The rich vascularization allows for the transfer of hormones from the islets while the specific arrangement of the alpha, beta and delta cells allows paracrine regulation of hormones. Thus high concentrations of the insulin secreted by the central beta cells inhibit glucagon release from the peripheral alpha cells. The venous blood flow from the islets of Langerhans reaches the hepatic portal vein, rendering the liver the prime target for the impact of pancreatic hormones. The rich innervations of the pancreas ensure the release of several neurotransmitters in the pancreas that regulate the release and concentrations of hormones (Case, 2006). During normal physiology, in the basal state, the secreted pancreatic fluid is mildly alkaline comprising a few proteins. Gastric distension and acid production during eating stimulate duodenal S cells causing the release of secretin. Under the influence of the secretin, a large quantity of the bicarbonate-rich watery liquid or the hydraulic secretion is released from the ductal cells of the smaller ducts. ...
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(Chronic Pancreatitis Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words)
“Chronic Pancreatitis Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/3073-chronic-pancreatitis.
While I was on a placement on an assessment unit a patient was admitted with severe upper abdominal pain radiating through her back, while her abdominal muscle had shown some sign of tender .She also had nausea and vomiting with anorexia. The patient was a 59-year-old woman and for the sake of upholding confidentiality, the patient will henceforth be referred to as Mrs A.
The most common cause in acute pancreatitis is the presence of gallstone that may occlude the passage of bile causing the inflammation (Stein & Miller, 2000) and also alcohol intake. Research found out that drugs such as Furosemide and Azathioprine induce acute pancreatitis (Lankisch, Droge, & Gottesleben, 1995).
First of all, stop eating foods high in fat and cholesterol and try a healthier diet. As a consequence, this leads onto the problem of being overweight. Once someone’s diet improves then body weight will naturally decrease. An extension of this is an increase in physical activity because extra energy will be used up thus reducing body weight.
Thus it is very hard to detect diseases of the pancreas in the initial stages. The exocrine part of the gland secretes digestive enzymes which help in digesting food particles whereas the endocrine portion secretes only a limited number of enzymes such as insulin and glucagon. The major abnormalities caused by the non-functioning of the endocrine portion of the pancreas are diabetes mellitus and neoplasms.
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Acute pancreatitis is associated with the formation of an abrupt inflammation that exists for a short duration. Its effects range from mild discomfort to detrimental, life-threatening disease (Davis 1). This type of disease is
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