However, when the area of research is more abstract i.e. involves looking at trends or measuring human perceptions and beliefs on a particular aspect that might be vital for health issues, a qualitative approach is the only method available which can lead to any conclusive inference. Statistical tools have been developed which allow classification, tabulation and grouping of even qualitative data into comprehensible forms which can lead to entirely valid inferences. Qualitative research involves comprehension of complex factors contributing to a particular phenomenon and numerous factors have to be identified, standardized and transformed into some measurable form before they can be evaluated to gain insight into the particular aspect being researched. Although considered unscientific by skeptics, as it lacks the experimental and observational approach followed in quantitative research which believes in the evidence generated by repeatable experiments yielding consistent data in biomedical sciences, it has gained belief in scientific circles during the last few decades due to the complex human, social, cultural and other factors influencing health in its entirety (Pope & Mays, 2006). Normal health or success of a particular medical procedure cannot be ruthlessly related to the success of a particular mode or procedure of therapy by its proven 100% success rate suggested by quantitative experimental data. Myriad factors, such as the psychological state of the patient, the manner in which the healthcare providers interact with the patient, family, economic and social standing of the patient and multiple other factors might be contributing in a significant manner. Such factors can only and only be evaluated by qualitative research. In order to evaluate the influence of such abstract factors, the right question has to be framed before any research strategy can be developed. It has to be assured that the research is conducted employing a design which can generate results which can be generalized within and without the applicable population. A prime example of a phenomenological qualitative study is the one recently conducted in Sweden, wherein the authors’ have tried to role of prenatal education from the perspective of the male parent regarding their role as primary caregivers immediately following birth (Erlandsson & Haggstrom-Nordin, 2010). Either parent’s opinion, irrespective of the sex is a complex collection of cultural background, personal education, experience and aptitude, which are difficult to evaluate using quantitative methodology as such things are not measurable. As the study has been conducted in an exclusive country i.e. Sweden, it can be assumed that the cultural background is free of any particular bias. The authors’ have sought to identify the concepts within the fathers’ minds about the topics covered in prenatal education especially after firsthand experience after childbirth and the difficulties encountered thereafter. The framing of the research question by the authors’
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Research Methods in Health Science Research and development have been part and parcel of every aspect of human life since the dawn of civilization. It is by research that mankind has progressed to the modern era. As in other fields, any research in health sciences involves identification of a specific problem during the course of delivery of health services, or when an inquisitive researcher attempts to identify reasons behind a phenomenon that can be modified or manipulated towards a positive outcome by adopting novel means or practices emerging from deliberate and intensive research conducted on an aspect…
Research methods Introduction In recent years, there have been an increasing number of debates amongst scholars, especially amongst those in the study of social and natural sciences, as regards the comparative advantages of qualitative and quantitative strategies for any undertaken research work.
Method: Using a correlation quantitative research design, a convenience sample of 20 students enrolled in paramedic specialization program with the Flinders University was surveyed. A questionnaire was used to assess these students seeking their answers on why they chose to enter paramedic specialization.
On the other hand, qualitative designs concentrate in understanding social phenomena by use of direct observation, analysis of secondary data and direct integration with the participants. Social scientists in general, apply various methods to investigate broad social phenomena.
Procedural ethics attempts to mitigate these concerns through the use of ethical codes and standards of behaviour, and focuses on the steps that should be taken in various ethical situations (Doyal 2001). These codes have been necessary to ensure against abuses by researchers and to codify exactly what constitutes unethical behaviour (Savage n.d.).
A wide scope of facts studied by the science should be considered in a broad context. Therefore, "science deals with objective facts, not with subjective values" (Armstrong, 1968 cited from Study Guide). This is a well-known science-values dichotomy. A scientific discovery should be always considered in relation to the methods implemented in order to overcome methodological and interpretative disputes.
Whereas physical forms of transport have accompanying health benefits, the researcher sought to investigate the sensitivity of the university towards the issue. These physical forms revolve around walking and running as well as bicycle riding. A random sample of 30 students was considered for the survey and the results used to make conclusions for the study.
Having a great variety of methods, a researcher is obliged to choose the most effective approach in accordance with the nature of the study. The appropriateness of research methods along with the high level of researcher’s knowledge and skills to implement specific research instruments causes significant effect on the success of the study and the validity of its findings.
History of “Race in Science”
Researchers like Carolus Linnaeus have extensively researched the history of race in science also called scientific racism on and his research was expounded further by Johann Blumenbach Friedrich (Gupta 2007, p.26). Johann was a professor in medicine from Germany and through his study of race in science; he was able to carry out classifications based on races.
The management for the administration of patient's medication by nurses requires nurses to make complex decisions to enable them to provide high quality and individual patient care. Managing patients' medications involves more than the task of administering medications (Torrance & Jordan, 1995;Jordan & Reid, 1997;Jordan & Hughes, 1998).
lts and make germane conclusions, researchers require using specific research methods that can be characterized with a great abundance (McNeill & Chapman 2005). It is fair to state that each research approach has its pros and cons that is why for every research problem, the
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