Nursing theories contribute an important part of the profession and according to Mary and Patricia (2008), nursing knowledge includes theories, philosophies, research and practice wisdom of the discipline. In the nursing profession, acquisition of this knowledge is essential for guiding practice (CN, 2011).
Nursing theory is a group of concepts, relationships, definitions and assumptions or propositions resulting from nursing models or other disciplines. The theory illustrates an intended and systematic view of phenomena through formulating particular interrelationships among the concepts, with objectives of describing, explaining, predicting and prescribing (Cowling, 2007). In this respect, knowledge structure in the nursing profession is studied in different headings, including nursing philosophies, conceptual models and grand theories, metaparadigm, nursing theories in addition to middle range theories and nursing theories.
According to Fawcett (2000), conceptual model is a representation of the way of judgment about a particular problem or a method of representing the complexity of functionality of a particular aspect. One main defining characteristic of conceptual models is that they are not usually based on a particular nursing theory. In this regard, the models are usually based on various theories, which enhance comprehension of a particular nursing problem in a different setting or context....
Florence Nightingale’s environmental theory emphasizes on the role of environment in promoting cure and health to a person. According to environmental theory, the role of nursing is to provide fresh air, cleanliness or hygiene, warmth, appropriate diet and a silent environment to facilitate curative process of patient (Barrit, 1973). In reference to the theory, Nightingale considers a person in the nursing context as a patient served by a nurse and affected by environment and as an individual possessing reparative abilities (Fawcett, 2000). To promote health, the environmental theory recommends provision of necessary physical, psychological and social support to the patients. In this respect, environment forms the basic component of the theory. The theory consists of all environmental aspects including social, psychological, physical and all other external conditions that influence a person’s health. To ensure the maintenance of health, the environmental theory holds that the healing powers within a person should be utilized to their maximum (Mary and Patricia 2008). This is achieved by deliberately controlling the physical, psychological, and social needs to prevent the occurrence of disease. In this respect, Florence Nightingale attributed the emergence of disease to nature, argued that ill health is reparative, preventable, and managed by controlling the relevant external and internal factors surrounding the patient (Florence Nightingale Museum). Therefore, according to the environmental theory, the focus of nursing professionals is management of the patient’s health and disease, whereby they should help the affected individuals regain health by providing a favorable environment. Faye Abdella’s topology of twenty-one