Diabetes Case Study of Angelo Reyes in the Neighborhood Date Abstract This essay aims to address a two-fold objective to wit: (1) to describe diabetes mellitus (its incidence in US, presenting signs and symptoms, complications, teaching requirements, and psychosocial challenges), and (2 to focus and relate Angelo Reyes’ case to the disease being studied…
Angelo is a 40-year-old Hispanic architect who has had diabetes mellitus type 1 since the age of 13. He is very compliant with diabetes management and strongly believes that he is healthy. However, Angelo and her husband Rachel are expecting to have twin babies and Angelo is apprehensive about the changes that can happen in his routine. Together with others advises he is considering an insulin pump therapy to manage diabetes. To understand Angelo’s dilemma, it is essential to learn diabetes and its types. Diabetes happened because there is a lack of insulin or because there are factors affecting the production of insulin (Watkins, p. 1). Diabetes was noted as early as 1500 B.C. by Ancient Egyptians and when Greek doctor Arataeus derived diabetes from the Greek word siphon, the disease that draws water from the body (Brill, p. 8).Watkins (2003) delineate WHO criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes such as 1) symptoms of diabetes plus casual venous plasma glucose >11.1 mmol/l, 2) fasting plasma glucose >7.0 mmol/l or whole blood 6.1 mmol/l, and 3) 2-hour plasma glucose >11.1 mmol/l (p. 1). Diabetes mellitus is categorized into type 1 and type 2. Angelo has type 1 diabetes mellitus which depends on exogenous injected insulin due to absolute deficiency of insulin secondary to beta cells destruction. Lifelong insulin is needed to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis and sustain life (McDowell, Brown, &Matthews, p. 2). Diabetes is a chronic and a lifelong disease. There is no cure for diabetes yet. However, there are existing treatments which requires the individuals and families to modify their life routines. Successful management of diabetes involves learning how the disease works, signs to watch for, and keeping and checking blood sugar levels normal (Brill, p. 17). Overview of the Incidence of Diabetes in United States The American Diabetes Association (2011) released data from the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet that the total prevalence of diabetes among children and adults in the United States is 25.8 million (8.3% of the population). In addition to this statistic are the 79 million people with prediabetes, 1.9 million of these are new cases of diabetes in people age 20 years and older since the 2010 survey. Typical Presenting Signs Signs and symptoms of diabetes may appear abruptly or gradually, depending on the production of insulin in the body. Mr. Reyeswill have clinical presentations of increased thirst (polydipsia) and urination (polyuria) due to the excess sugar drawing water from body tissues and the kidneys flushing out extra water to lower the concentration of sugar in urine. Mr. Reyes may also feel fatigue and may have increased appetite (polyphagia) due to lack of proper body fuel and cell starvation. Despite of increased appetite, Mr. Reyes will suffer from weight loss because the lack of glucose for nourishment burn body fat to compensate for the energy requirements. Increased glucose in the eyes can also cause bleeding or leaking of fluids in eyes blood vessels which damages the blood vessels and results in blurring of vision. Mr. Reyes will also have healing difficulties and are more prone to infections of the bladder or skin. Other clinical manifestations might present are headache, ...
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