These early views on the reasons for continued drug use have been replaced by recent research which have contrasting perspectives that suggest that negative reinforcement is not a strong influence on drug motivation. Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motivation theories for drug/ alcohol use and addiction. Motivations for Drug Use Contemporary theory of the motivation for drug addiction makes paradoxical claims about the psychological basis for seeking drugs. Drug-seeking is considered to result from subjective craving for the positive effects of the drug, which suggests that this behavior is intentional. On the other hand, a key factor in the clinical diagnosis of drug dependence is that drug-seeking is resistant to the intention to quit, which means that drug-seeking is habitual or automatic. This is paradoxical, because drug seeking cannot be concurrently intentional and automatic (Hogarth & Chase, 2011). There are several reasons for people to take drugs. These include “peer pressure, relief of stress, to have increased energy, to relax, to relieve pain, to escape reality, to feel more self-esteem, and for recreation” (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2009, p.14591). Individuals resort to taking stimulants to keep alert, or cocaine for the feeling of excitement it produces. Similarly, athletes and bodybuilders may take anabolic steroids to increase muscle mass.
There are numerous stressors which increase the risk of alcohol use disorders in humans. In alcohol and other drug dependent (AOD) people, drug craving is increased by internal and external forms of stress, which can also trigger relapse (Wand, 2008). ...Show more