These early views on the reasons for continued drug use have been replaced by recent research which have contrasting perspectives that suggest that negative reinforcement is not a strong influence on drug motivation. Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motivation theories for drug/ alcohol use and addiction. Motivations for Drug Use Contemporary theory of the motivation for drug addiction makes paradoxical claims about the psychological basis for seeking drugs. Drug-seeking is considered to result from subjective craving for the positive effects of the drug, which suggests that this behavior is intentional. On the other hand, a key factor in the clinical diagnosis of drug dependence is that drug-seeking is resistant to the intention to quit, which means that drug-seeking is habitual or automatic. This is paradoxical, because drug seeking cannot be concurrently intentional and automatic (Hogarth & Chase, 2011). There are several reasons for people to take drugs. These include “peer pressure, relief of stress, to have increased energy, to relax, to relieve pain, to escape reality, to feel more self-esteem, and for recreation” (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2009, p.14591). Individuals resort to taking stimulants to keep alert, or cocaine for the feeling of excitement it produces. Similarly, athletes and bodybuilders may take anabolic steroids to increase muscle mass.
There are numerous stressors which increase the risk of alcohol use disorders in humans. In alcohol and other drug dependent (AOD) people, drug craving is increased by internal and external forms of stress, which can also trigger relapse (Wand, 2008). Stress is generally defined as “any stimulus that challenges physiological homeostasis – that is, which alters the balance or equilibrium of the normal physiological state of the organism” (Wand, 2008, p.119). However, various forms of stress have different physiological consequences, stimulating different combinations of signaling molecules. These molecules aid in cell-to-cell communication, such as neurohormones, and produce distinctive outcomes on physiological processes. Therefore, the type and duration of stress have to be specified, for planning the treatment. Further, individuals respond differently to a particular type of stress, “and physiological and behavioral responses tend to be associated with distinct coping styles” (Wand, 2008, p.120). An interaction of environmental and genetic factors play a part in both susceptibility to alcohol and other drugs (AOD) use disorders, and in people’s responses to stress. Prenatal and early life stress can have impacts on the body systems involved in the stress response, for the entire life span, thereby predisposing an individual to certain diseases. This early programming effect is partly affected by “epigenetic mechanisms that alter heritable traits without manifesting as changes in the DNA sequence, and which also can aid in the development of AOD disorders” (Wand, 2008, p.120). Motivation Theories for the Use and Addiction to Drugs and Alcohol An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement Baker, Piper and McCarthy (2004) reformulate the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction. They propose that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for ...
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Psychology A Review of Addiction Counseling Methods. Treatment for addiction has become popular for several reasons. First, there is an emergent idea that treatment is effective; second, it is believed that treatment aids in curbing crime rates as there is a widespread assumption that drug and alcohol addiction causes criminal behavior (Weegman & Leighton, 2004).
Drug addiction is a major problem in most developed countries. The problem results from continued use of a particular drug that makes the user to desire more of the substance. Drug addiction is more of a medical problem than a behavioral problem. Addiction to drug is among the most dominant consequence of drug usage that causes problems major problems to drug users.
Julien et al. (2010) and Selye (1978) consider introduction of a foreign material to the body as one cause of deviation from this normalness. Exposing systems of an individual to a foreign material over a long period results to addiction. That is, addicts of a particular substance develop the behavior after being exposed to the substance over some time.
In fact, most of the societies believe that most of the drug addicts lack the motivation and will power to change their behavior. They believe that it is an easy thing to stop using drugs. However, to most of the drug addict, quitting is a problem as this problem affects their brain. Despite this enormous challenge, drug addiction can be overcome through myriad ways of treatment. This will help in stopping of drug abuse and such individuals will be able to lead productive lives.
He has quoted a 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health and pointed out that more than 22 million Americans age 12 and older - nearly 9% of the U.S. population - use illegal drugs. More than 23 million Americans age 12 and older are currently undergoing treatment to stop drug addiction (Cooper).
This paper would further discuss the impact of drugs on people's life.
Nowadays there are a growing number of adolescents facing the problem of alcohol. It starts as fun takes over you and begins killing you slowly. In other words it can be said that Alcohol is just like a slow poison.
This discussion explores the societal, medical, and psychological theories of drug abuse and the perceptions of the society towards the use of alcohol and prescription drugs.
Sociological theories explain the causes of drug abuse to be societal with economic, social,
Substance addiction is most common in individuals that engage into activities with fellow peers and thus the behavioral characteristics in the particular group develop instantaneously. Psychologists have deeply employed their science in
The educational experience of a child presents one to a special environment with less parental supervision and unique academic, behavioral, interpersonal, developmental, and financial demands (Doweiko, 2012, 288). The special environment
In order to resists temptations and cope with addiction people often need professional help. It is the reason why there is a well-developed network of social organizations and community services which help people to
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