Increasing numbers of inmate in prisons Introduction In 1990, the population of inmates in the United States increased by about 135% since 1980 (Flanagan and Maguire, 1993). This indeed is showing the fact that there is a positive growth of crimes in the United States which increased inmates in the country…
These factors include the increase of older population, the increase of crime and productivity of inmates in the United States. Increase of older population and its impacts Over the years, the population in the United States continues to increase due to high fertility rate, increase of live birth and some other factors such as geographical movement of the people. In 1995 the national population in the United States has grown by 13 million from 1990 (US Census Bureau, 2010). From 2000 to 2006, the US population increased by 6.39% but the overall population growth rate slowed down by 17% (Geo Midpoint, 2011). However, the entire national population in the United States does not shrink in number, rather it continues to grow. Its condition at present time is moving into an upward spiral while it becomes older in general. However, this trend started in 1980s. The population growth rate in 1980 was 10% and 13% in 1990 (US Census Bureau, 2010). In 2000, the US population was growing older with majority of them from fifteen down to fifty-four year old (US Census Bureau, 2010). This implies that the population in the US is getting older. However, a certain study shows that age structure is related to the prison population (Marvell and Moody, 1997). The age groups with high imprisonment rate are eighteen to twenty four, twenty five to thirty four, and thirty five to forty four. In 1980 to 1987, it was the groups with age twenty four to forty four that grew most rapidly (Walker, 1996). This probably explains the dramatic increase of prison system in the United States starting in 1980s. Considering that the population in the United States is getting older and the age of individuals with high imprisonment ranges from eighteen to forty four, the number of crimes is expected to move in an upward spiral. In general, the number of violence and crimes in the United States has a positive association with the increasing number of its older population. For instance, those people who committed crimes or violent behavior at the age of 18 may eventually repeat the same act in the following years of their life. For instance, it is found that re-victimization pattern is associated with imprisonment (Finkelhor et al., 2007). In fact, this study further shows that within family older siblings are most likely to stand as factor for both risk and decrease of re-victimization process. This further implies that age is associated with the increase of crime in the United States. In fact, it is not only in the United States, but in other countries that most of inmates have long criminal records (Tonry, 2004). This means that they have various records of imprisonment or being in prison due to crimes or violent behaviors they committed against the law. These people have committed the same or related crimes all over again due to alcohol and drug abuse (Tonry, 2004). In the United States, substance abuse and alcohol addiction are pervasive issues that the national government has long been given with its wider focus and attention. The fact that these social problems have contributed to the increase of crimes, violent behavior of a person and other related accidents, the government is very eager to alleviate or eventually impede their negative impacts. However, there is another important issue that needs to be closely determined aside from finding for the right solution of these social problems. In the United States, adults and young adults are strongly linked to alcohol ...
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Beginning as early as the 1950’s changes began to occur in the prisons of the United States. These changes progressively eroded the inmate code of the past, and new sources of power and control emerged in the state prison system. Traditional Inmate Codes Sykes and Messinger (1960) studied the traditional inmate code in which they identified five main principles.
Even though rape or any kind of sexual assault in correctional facilities is prevented by the 2003 Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA), still the cases of sexual offences in correctional facilities are increasing. This paper briefly analyses the rape in correctional facilities and the possible solutions to eliminate sexual assault cases behind the bar.
Along with prison population, rate of sexual and other form of violence, sexual victimization also increased which costs more on exchequer to hire more guards to maintain law and order. At the same time, rate of recidivism is also said to be high in US as that of two-thirds of released prisoners will be incarcerated within three years for the repeated offence, which reflects the system and effectiveness of rehabilitation program carried out by the prison authority.
This is a very high number when compared to that of other States such as Washington D.C, which is at 571,641. This has to do with the fact that prisons in Texas are many. The high levels of prisoners in Austin-Texas are not a big issue than the challenges experienced by prisoners.
Prisons can be privatized to solve this problem of insolvency that is the dilemma of federal owned associations. Some of the legislators oppose the idea of private prisons as they believe that they cost almost the same as federal prisons. However, the trend towards private prisons is rapidly increasing by every passing day.
While few would argue with that contention, others do contend that the primary purpose of the prison should be rehabilitate offenders and get them ready to be positive contributors and law-abiding citizens in society upon their release. Naturally, there are some prisoners who will never be released back into society, but for the millions of others, many in society would like to see them get prepared for a second chance.
In private prisons, that tasks which were previously assigned for public institutions, such as the reformation of the prisoners as well as the ensuring of public safety has created a situation where it is the private institutions which have taken them up.
Along with prison population, rate of sexual and other form of violence, sexual victimization also increased which costs more on exchequer to hire more guards to maintain law and order. At the same time, rate of recidivism is
Overcrowding of correctional facilities is a contributor to recent increase in the number of suicides in prisons. Overcrowding is said to exert too much pressure on the inmates so they end up developing psychological and