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Depression and Amputees - Research Paper Example

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Depression and Amputees

4): Persistent sadness, anxiousness, or feeling of “emptiness” Sense of hopelessness and/or pessimism Perception of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness Irritability and restlessness Absence of interest in activities and hobbies (including sex) Problems in concentration, remembering, and in making decisions Insomnia, wakefulness, or excessive sleeping Overeating or loss of appetite Suicidal tendencies and thoughts Pains, aches, cramps, headaches, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment The National Institute of Mental Health emphasized that not all people with depression experience all the symptoms of depression. Further, depression can be major depressive disorder, dysthymia, psychotic, or seasonal (p. 3). The World Health Organization classified depression as “among the most disabling clinical diagnoses in the world, estimated to affect nearly 340 million people worldwide, and 18 million people in the United States at any one time” (Greden, 2001, p. 5). Taking self-concept as a possible determinant of depression among the handicapped, Akram and Naseem (2010) investigated the level of self-concept among handicapped persons. The researchers used sample sizes derived through stratified sampling to limit possible error at 5%. They found that self concept “depends upon age, gender, occupation, and education level” (Akram and Naseem, 2010, p. 84). The researchers reached the conclusion based on their interpretation of one and two-sample t-tests, Chi-square tests, and test of significance of the correlation coefficients. In contrast, Mozumdar et al. (2010) investigated whether depression among persons with lower extremity amputation (LEA) is really higher than the general population. The investigators found that “the depression levels of the LEA also were not associated to most of the physical health factor” (Mozumdar et al., 2010, p. 887). The Mozumdar et al. (2010) conclusion was based on a sample of 85 amputees out of an original target of 1,000 amputees. A low sample was realized because only a few agreed to give their informed consent. Using a sample of 56 Jordanian patients with “unilateral lower limb amputation” with mean duration of 8.4+/-5.75 years, Hawamdeh et al. (2008) assessed the prevalence of anxiety and depression among them and found that 63% (N=35) were normal while 37.5% (N=21) were “abnormal” (p. 629). Originally, 92 amputees were recruited for their study but the investigators reduced the respondents to 56 because failed to contact 25, 6 amputees did not consent to participate in the study, and 5 amputees were excluded because they did not respond to some parts of the questionnaire (Hawamdeh et al., 2008, p. 628). Hawamdeh et al. used a questionnaire that included clinical data that can indicate produce anxiety and depression scores and the participants “were fully informed about the nature of the study procedure and consent was obtained from each subject before participating in the study” (p. 628). The study of Nachitz and Lenger (2008) is important because it clarifies that traumatic leg amputees are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease other than depression. Bhuvaneswar et al. (2007, p. 304) revealed that “posttraumatic appears to be more common in amputees following combat or accidental injury, whereas general rates of PTSD are 20 to 22% in ...Show more

Summary

State of knowledge: Amputees, depression, and the social worker I review the state of knowledge on amputee and depression as the basis for designing research for social work in the subject area. Depression is a condition that “interferes with daily life, normal functioning, and causes pain for both the person with the disorder and those who care about him or her” (National Institute of Mental Health 2008, p…
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