In fact, DCIS accounts for approximately 20% of all new breast cancer and precancerous condition diagnoses (Clause Stowe & Carter 2001). With or without treatment, DCIS patients have a very high survival rate; and, for most women diagnosed with DCIS, it is not considered to be a life-threatening condition. Mastectomy is the preferred, and most effective, treatment option for DCIS patients (Katz et al. 2010). However, there is currently very little research regarding how patients are actually affected by choosing mastectomy to treat DCIS; and, since the number of new DCIS diagnoses is continuing to increase, much more research is needed. DCIS, also called intraductal carcinoma, is a condition whereby the cancer cells develop in the milk ducts of the breast and have not moved out of the duct into any of the surrounding tissue (National Institute of Health 2009). As mentioned above, there is disagreement as to whether or not DCIS should be called cancer; and, some experts often refer to it as "stage zero breast cancer" ( Harris & Morrow 2009). Even though DCIS itself is not considered to be harmful, it is a known risk factor for invasive breast cancer (Zuckerman 2009). While most DCIS patients do not develop invasive breast cancer, approximately two percent (2%) of DCIS cases show evidence of metastases and an even smaller percentage of cases do actually develop into invasive breast cancer (Cornfield et al. 2004). Certain biomarkers may help to identify whether DCIS patients are at high or low risk of developing invasive breast cancer; however, more research is necessary to make more accurate risk predictions (Welch et al. 2008). Currently, however, there is no way to determine or predict which DCIS cases will in fact develop into invasive breast cancer. This paper will try to determine the available information on the rationale for selecting this modality; explore literature regarding the physiological/biological basis of the treatment or how the treatment manages the disease, critic the impact this treatment had on the individual and the nurses’ role in addressing this, and consider how the patients’ experience could have been improved. Discussion Overview: Even without treatment, most women diagnosed with DCIS do not go on to develop invasive breast cancer. DCIS patients that do opt for treatment have surgical options, the most common being lumpectomy (with or without radiation therapy) and mastectomy. Lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy and mastectomy have the same high survival rate of 96% and above; however, mastectomy does have a slightly lower recurrence rate than lumpectomy with radiation which has a lower recurrence rate than lumpectomy alone (Holmberg et al. 2008; Hughes et al. 2009). Other factors have been found to affect DCIS recurrence rates
Mastectomy for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ, Impact on Patient Introduction Diagnostic breast biopsy that confirms Ductal Carcinoma in Situ or DCIS diagnosis introduced two techniques of wire-location open surgery and directional vacuum-assisted biopsy with the goals to prevent local recurrence after completion of first treatment, and prevention of invasive breast cancer (Medifocus, 2011)…
Its malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm produced from the urothelium, tends to behave like its pulmonary counterpart (Devilee & Tavassoli 135). Most commonly, the cells affected by small cell carcinomas are 2-3 times of the lymphocyte size, but if better preserved, can be larger with more visible nucleoli and more open chromatin form (Gray 65).
Mastectomy is the surgical resection of the breast tissues usually involves the removal of a quarter parts and followed with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for higher percentage of good prognosis (Dodge, 2011). But since the introduction of lumpectomy as another alternative for mastectomy, it had gained recognition slowly but steadily.
And since we have already discussed the Carcinoma of the Cervix being one and the same as cervical cancer, we may as well discuss what it really is.
"Cervix cancers may be from the Squamous Cell Carcinoma type and usually arise from the epithelium lining the cervix.
The authors show that ILC patient are not different from IDC patients when it comes to survival but can be treated different with better outcome given their different biological signature.
Introduction: In this paper, the analysis of clinical outcome from histological findings has been analysed to show correlation between biological factors and patient survival.
Bilateral mastectomy is a pre-emptive surgical procedure to completely remove the glandular breast tissue in patients with high risk of breast cancer. It is performed on patients who have all the genetic markers and are at very high risk of developing the disease. It is known to reduce the risk by almost 90%.
The lung carcinomas originate mostly from the epithelial lining of the lungs. These are broadly classified into non-small cell and small cell carcinomas. On the basis of cell type, the carcinoma can be
Volunteers that have been prior patients of breast cancer or are the relatives of breast cancer patients are good sources of counseling and support even though they are not medically qualified. Although different studies have drawn variable conclusions about the
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