Similar with the Asian American culture, Hispanic American also believe that health can be attained by maintaining balance between the hot and cold and the wet and dry forces. Illness results when God punished Hispanic Americans for their sin, when feeling of susto (fright) occur, when someone throws a mal ojo (evil eye), and envidia (envy)(De Laune, 2006, p. 394). Hispanic Americans used Spanish or Portuguese and other dialects in communication process. They are verbally expressive and used dramatic body language to express emotions and pain. However, Hispanic Americans view direct confrontation and expression of negative feelings as disrespectful. When communicating with a Hispanic American, one can observe the comfort in close proximity, overly tactile communication such as frequent handshakes and enbrace, and the value Hispanic Americans have for the presence of others. Hispanic Americans value modesty and politeness in speaking and are presently oriented. However, time for Hispanic American is flexible.
The role of the family in the primary care might be used in dealing with Hispanic Americans as they prioritize first the need of the families before the individual needs. Nuclear family is the basic unit but highly regarded extended family. Gender roles are also evident in the Hispanic American culture and man performs the role of decision maker and breadwinner while the woman is the home maker and care taker. Review of Literature Healthcare Concerns and Beliefs Health care concerns and beliefs of many Hispanics have affected the predisposing diseases of their race and access to the use of health services. Hispanic diet, lack of health insurance, transportation, culture, and linguistic are some of the identified concerns of most researchers among Hispanics that needs to be addressed. Hispanic dietary preferences differ from other culture. Existing research suggests that Hispanic diet has greater percentage of carbohydrates, protein, and fiber, and lower percentage of total and saturated fat (Loria, Bush, Carroll, Looker, McDowell, Johnson, &Sempos, 1995, n.p.).Thus, Hispanics are more apt to meet the cholesterol education program. However, majority of the Hispanics suffer from obesity which is one of the most important health problems they are facing today. Aside from dietary preferences, Hispanics also lack sufficient access to health services particularly because of financial, structural, and personal barriers. Lack of health insurance and low income among Hispanics constitute the financial barriers. Structural barriers include proximity and transportation to the health providers and personal barriers include cultural and linguistic factors. In addition, Hispanics are less likely to consult a primary care’s advice primarily because Hispanics believe that having a disease is a punishment from God. For example, a child suddenly has fever after the parents brought the child to the park. Following Hispanic culture, this child was thrown a mal ojo (evil eye) by a stranger. Hispanics are known for being religious and spiritual-driven. Hispanics belief on God and evil forces are