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Research Methods in Healthcare - Essay Example

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18), the purpose of research in healthcare is to address problems relevant for the healthcare professions. In all disciplines, there are two basic types of research: basic and applied. Basic research seeks to formulate or refine a theory while…
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Research Methods in Healthcare

ure of reality, epistemological in that it inquires on the relationship between the researcher and the researched, axiological in that it asks the role of values, and methodological in that it asks how the researcher can obtain knowledge.
For Polit and Beck (2004, p. 14), two important paradigm in research are positivism and naturalism. Ontologically, the positivist paradigm asserts that reality is objective and singular while the naturalistic paradigm holds that reality is multiple and subjectively constructed by an individual (Polit and Beck 2004, p. 14). Epistemologically, the positivist paradigm considers that the researcher is independent of its subject and, thus, findings are not influenced by researcher (Polit and Beck 2004, p. 14). In contrast, the naturalistic paradigm assumes that findings are product of the interactive process between the researcher and the researched (Polit and Beck 2004, p. 14). Axiologically, the positivist paradigm maintains that values and biases must be rejected in the interest of objectivity but, contradicting this, the naturalist paradigm hold that subjectivity is unavoidable (Polit and Beck 2004, p. 14). Finally, methodologically, the positivist paradigm believes that knowledge can only be obtained through deduction, focusing on specifics, verification, controls, use of quantifiable data and statistical analysis, and generalization (Polit and Beck 2004, p. 14). The naturalistic paradigm, on the other hand, uses induction, emphasis on contexts and holism, interpretation of experience, use of narrative, qualitative techniques and identification of patterns (Polit and Beck 2004, p. 14). Based on the two paradigms, there are three research methods: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method research (Cresswell 2003, p. 18).
Following Conger (1998), Bryman et al. (1988), and Alvesson (1996), Ospina (2004, p. 2) pointed out that there are at least three advantages in employing qualitative research. First, qualitative research ... Read More
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