The nursing theorist who has been selected for this paper is Madeleine M. Leininger (PhD, LHD, DS, CTN, RN, FAAN, FRCNA). Born in Sutton, 1925, Leininger did diploma in nursing from St. Anthony’s School of Nursing. She completed her bachelor’s degree in 1950 and her master’s degree in 1954. During the 1950s, she worked in a child guidance home, where she developed the basic thoughts of transcultural care. She completed her PhD in cultural and social anthropology from the University of Washington, 1966. In the University of Colorado, she offered the first course in transcultural nursing. At the School of Nursing, University of Washington, she created the program of transcultural nursing in 1974. She has founded the Journal of Transcultural Nursing and established the Transcultural Nursing Society. She has written or edited more than twenty seven books, which have been highly appreciated in this field. She has given significant contributions in psychiatric and mental health nursing along with cultural studies and anthropology. She started to frame the global context of nursing well in advance, much before the globalization itself.
Value and Significance of Her Theory
Leininger has put forward the theory of transcultural nursing. The value of the theory is that it redefines nursing with a more complex culturalogical perception of the world, where population movement, mixing, and immigration are very common. The theory develops valuable insight of several terms related to nursing, or created in the context, and in many cases, the meanings of such terms have been modified to make them contextual with respect to the contemporary multicultural environment. The significance of her theory is that it is a new phenomenon and construct regarding nursing care with a new phrase to define this holistic concept – transcultural nursing (Leininger, 1989). Researches in the field of transcultural nursing focus on finding out vaguely known or largely unknown cultural care issues related to health concerns mainly from two viewpoints: One viewpoint focuses on indigenous and local aspects and the other viewpoint focuses on professional perception and global aspects of the cultural issues related to caring (Murphy, 2006). The Theory Leininger has defined her transcultural nursing theory as a substantive area of practice and study aimed at comparative cultural care (caring) values, concepts, and practices of groups or individuals of different or similar cultures. The goal of the transcultural nursing is to provide culture specific and universal nursing care practices for the health and well-being of people or to help them face unfavorable human conditions, illness, or death in culturally meaningful ways. (Leininger, 2002) Hence, Murphy (2006) writes that “transcultural nursing is both a specialty and general practice area. It focuses on worldwide cultures and comparative cultural caring, health, and nursing phenomena.” Hence, transcultural nursing theory can be defined as a phenomenon that is targeted at adapting with both the specific and generic aspects of a patient’s cultural life through caring and ethnonursing. Explanation The practice and evolution of transcultural nursing must address the cultural dynamics, which affect the relationship between the nurse and the client. The related theory analyzes, and to a