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Ethics8 - Assignment Example

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Genetic modification also called genetic engineering refers to the direct manipulation of an organism’s genome through the use of modern DNA technology. This process essentially involves the introduction of a foreign DNA into an organism. The introduction of new DNA into an…
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This is done by isolating and copying the genetic material of interest by using molecular cloning methods in order to come up with a DNA sequence that contain the necessary genetic elements for expression. The construct is then inserted into the host organism. There exist other forms of genetic engineering such as gene targeting and knocking out of specific genes through engineered nucleases (Lemaux, 2006).
Cloning though not considered genetic engineering or modification is closely related and genetic engineering has been seen to be used within it. Synthetic biology on the other hand is a discipline that is emerging where there is an introduction of artificially synthesized genetic material from raw materials into an organism. There are many resultants of genetic manipulations. When genetic materials from other species of organisms are added to a host the outcome is called a transgenic. When genes from same species that can interbreed are added to the result is a cisgenic. When genetic material is used to remove genetic material from another organism it results in a knockout organism (Lemaux, 2006).
The first stage in genetic engineering is isolation of the gene. Here the gene that is supposed to be inserted into a host is identified, or chosen and then isolated form the others. The isolation process involves multiplying the gene using polymerase chain reaction and then inserted into a bacterial plasmid. The second stage is constructs where the isolated gene is combined with other genetic elements that are important for its functioning.in some cases the gene can be modified at this stage for effectiveness. The third stage is called gene targeting where the gene is inserted in the host genome. The most common technique for doing his is random placement. Other techniques involve placing the gene in specific locations. Gene targeting uses is known to use homologous recombination to target desired changes to a specified endogenous gene (Beardmore & ... Read More
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