Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model remains one of the most salient theoretical and practical frameworks in nursing care. Much has been written and said about the quality and efficiency of the adaptation model in practical nursing settings. …
This paper provides a brief overview of the model. A review of literature is performed, to highlight the most important practical findings. Analysis of Roy’s Adaptation Model in the context of emergency nursing is conducted. Implications of the model for emergency nursing care are provided. Keywords: Roy, Roy’s Adaptation Model, nursing care, emergency nursing. Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model: Implications for Emergency Nursing Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model remains one of the most salient theoretical and practical nursing care frameworks. Much has been written and said about the quality and efficiency of Roy’s Adaptation Model for practicing nurses. Numerous dimensions of the model and their applicability in nursing were explored. Yet, many aspects of Roy’s model remain unclear. The current state of research provides abundant information about the main concepts, assumptions, and philosophic foundations of Roy’s Adaptation Model. Simultaneously, the body of evidence supporting the relevance of the model in emergency nursing is very scarce. Future researchers must focus on the analysis of Roy’s Adaptation Models and the effects it causes on the quality of emergency nursing; practicing nurses working in emergency departments must have a clear vision of Roy’s model and use its basic assumptions, to foster adaptation mechanisms and recovery among ED patients. Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model: A Brief Overview Sister Callista Roy had been a member of the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Carondelet since 1966 (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2011). Her model of adaptation remains one of the foundational elements of contemporary nursing theory and practice. Roy’s conceptual model became a relevant response to the teaching and practical challenges in contemporary nursing; the model was first published in 1970, but enthusiastic analysis and application of the model continue even today (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2011). The discussed model builds on two philosophic premises: humanism and veritivity (Nayback, 2009). Humanism is essentially about treating individuals as creative and purposeful, who exhibit intrinsic holism and constantly seek to maintain inner integrity through interpersonal processes (Naybank, 2009). Veritivity also suggests that human existence always has a defined purpose, and there is always an inherent value and explicit meaning of life (Nayback, 2009). The two basic concepts of Roy’s Adaptation Model are systems and adaptation; the former refers to “a grouping of units that are related and connected, thus forming a unified whole”, whereas the latter describes and comprises the coping mechanisms individuals use to achieve the desired level of integrity (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2011). Callista Roy assumes that all humans are purposeful beings, who constantly interact with the environment and utilize four types of adaptation (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2011). These types of adaptation include (1) physiologic-physical; (2) self-concept group identity; (3) role function; and (4) interdependence (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2011). Physiologic-physical adaptation covers situations, when individuals succeed in meeting their basic needs for nutrition and oxygen, activity and rest, elimination and protection (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2011). Physiologic-physical adaptation also implies that individuals can achieve and sustain adequate levels of fluids, acid-base, and electrolytes (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2011). Self-concept group identity adaptation takes place, when individuals achieve the level of integrity and spiritual wellbeing required to promote the sense of purpose (Sitzman & Eichel ...
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