Na+ (sodium ion) is a positive and major ion in fluids outside of body cells. Its major function is to regulate water and fluid levels in the body. Na+ is involved in transmission of nerve impulses (Ganong, 2005). Normal sodium levels in the body is between 135-145mmol/L. High levels of Na+ in the body results to hypernatremia while low levels result to hypernatremia.
K+ is a positive ion found inside of body cells. The main function of K+ is to regulate heartbeat and body muscle function. Normal body levels of K+ is between 3.5-5.0mmol/L. An increase in body levels of K+ results to hyperkalemia while a decrease below normal results to hypokalemia. Increase or decrease in K+ levels results to irregular heartbeats known as arrhythmias and can also result in nervous system impairment (Ganong, 2005).
Ca++ refers to ionized calcium in the serum. Its main functions are for blood clotting, transmission of nerve impulses, cell membrane permeability and muscle contraction. Normal blood calcium level ranges between 2.2 -2.6mmol/L. An excess of calcium ions in the serum results to hypercalcemia while a deficit results to hypocalcaemia. A decrease in serum calcium levels results to neuromuscular irritability.
Phosphorus (P) main function in the body is it gets distributed as Adenosine-triphosphate which is the main chemical energy for the body. It is a major component of DNA and RNA. It is also essential for teeth and bone formation. High levels of phosphorus in the body results to increase risk of cardiovascular diseases. Normal values of phosphorous in blood range from 2.4-4.1mg/dL (Ganong, 2005).
ADH- antidiuretic hormone also gets called as arginine vasopressin. It becomes secreted in the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a key role in regulating body water by reducing its loss through urine. It stimulates water reabsorption in the kidney tubules.
Artrial natriuretic hormone refers to a cardiac hormone whose gene and receptors get found ...
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