The bill aims to ensure that insurance coverage be provided for the inpatient hospital stay for a minimum period post mastectomy and for outpatient stay in lumpectomy. Conflicting arguments prevent a consensus on the bill. On one hand it is claimed that post breast surgery the patient need physical care, guidance as well as psychological counseling. On the other hand researchers provide evidence in favor of ambulatory breast surgery. The current paper presents a comprehensive view of the various aspects of H. R. 111 bill and its impact on nurse’s role if enacted. H.R.111 BREAST CANCER PATIENT PROTECTION ACT OF 2009 BACKGROUND BREAST CANCER Cancer involves formation of lump or ‘tumor’ within a specific organ due to uncontrolled division of cells. Breast cancers effects lobules in breasts and have been defined as “the cancer of tissues of the breast, usually the ducts and lobules. It occurs in both male and female breast; although male breast cancer is rare”. (National Cancer Institute, 2011) Breasts are modified skin glands located between the clavicles and sixth to eighth rib on the chest wall, and develop from the mammary ridge in the embryo. The gland tissue or lobules in the breast are responsible for milk production and are connected by ducts to the nipples. Besides the lobules and the ducts, breast also comprises of fatty, connective and lymphatic tissue. Recent studies provide evidence for the presence of more than 20 lobes or segments comprising of major lactiferous ducts involved in conducting milk to the nipples from the lobules. Each lobule, also known as the terminal portion of the duct system; comprises of multiple ductules that form its glandular acini, and the specialized connective tissue enveloping it. The rest of the breast comprises of stromal connective tissues that are histologically distinct. The terminal duct along with its lobular unit; is termed as terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU), and is usually the points of origin of lung cancer. It has been hypothesized that this area possesses stem cells which are responsible for the tumor formation (Kopans, 2007). In situ breast cancer includes cancers restricted to ducts (ductal carcinoma in situ or DCIS), and lobules (lobular carcinoma in situ or LCIS); i.e. the tumor remains within its place of origin. In contrast invasive cancer refers to tumor spread beyond the place of origin, the severity of which is determined by the level of invasiveness. The cancers are diagnosed through needle or surgical biopsy. INCIDENCES OF BREAST CANCER Breasts cancers are the second most prevalent form of cancer next to skin cancer affecting women in US. During the year 2008, 40,480 women and 450 men were reported to have died from breast cancer. In the same year 182,460 and 1990 new cases of invasive breast cancer were reported for women and men respectively. With changes in life style patterns, and reproductive behavior the risks for occurrence of breast cancer are expected to rise. On the basis of data for the occurrence of breast cancer in the period spanning 1995-2007, it has been estimated that during the year 2011 a total of 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 75,650 additional cases of in situ breast cancer will be diagnosed. Further 39,520 women are expected to suffer death due to breast cancer making it the second major cancer in terms of mortality (next to lung cancer). Women become more vulnerable to breast cancer with advancing age; the threat rising sharply
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ABSTRACT Breast cancer has been reported to be the second most prevalent cancer affecting mainly women. The treatment procedure for the diseases is primarily surgery which may either be mastectomy or complete removal of breast, or lumpectomy and lymph node dissection…
Breast cancer is a major cause for morbidity and mortality of women worldwide. This is condition predominantly affecting women and especially women in western countries or nations that accepted modern lifestyle of living. It is found that modern ways of living and diet are one of the most important factors that increase the risk for breast cancer in countries with modern way of living.
As genes are the basic control machine of the cells, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. When compared with the normal cells, where damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system, tumor cells do not have any repair mechanism for the damaged DNA and there is a constant proliferation of cells without displaying senescence, hence, generating a series of abnormal cells, with altered cellular pathways for uncontrolled proliferation, figuring malignant tumors (Alberts et al., 2007; Katzang et al., 2009).
The author states that the healthcare reform has nationalized its system at the cost of $940 billion. Such amount is exacted from budget cuts, taxation and government funding. On a positive note, it was perceived to have reduced the national fiscal deficiency by $1.2 trillion. This was perceived as the strategic resolution.
Operable breast cancer is characterized by the presence of malignant cells within the milk ducts and other regions of the breast, which sometimes may include the local lymph nodes. The lumps or growths can be removed surgically provided that at the time of operation the patient does not have overt metastases.
Public health objectives can range from targeting fairly benign diseases such as the common cold, to life-threatening and devastating types of cancer. Health itself is defined by the World Health Organization as being a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 1948, p1), suggesting that public health operatives need to look at the whole picture rather than merely preventing disease.
Physicians in those early days may not have known what the condition was, but they knew that something destructive was taking place. Unfortunately, breast cancer was considered a taboo, more of a punishment than an uncontrollable illness, which meant that very few diagnoses were made before the individual succumbed to the devastation of cancer.
The reform’s aim is to regulate public and private insurance companies to meet the demands of the public for efficient medical services. However, before the reform was signed, there were speculations that the reform will do the contrary of
ultimately minimize and prevent the occurrence of breast cancer, statistics and current trends still manifest the preponderance of women contracting breast cancer. The researchers’ personal experiences on having known close relatives and associates’ families with some
Incidents of breast cancer are found more in white women in comparison to Hispanic, Asian or African-American women. The paper aims at exploring associated risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment processes and breast cancer prevention measures.
Several risk factors
2 pages (500 words)Research Paper
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