StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Pertussis, Whooping Cough - Research Paper Example

Not dowloaded yet

Extract of sample
Pertussis, Whooping Cough

There are two types of pertussis: severe and mild. Severe pertussis occurs in the infants and young children. Severe pertussis is more complicated and may lead even to death, whereas, mild pertussis is hard to diagnose and it is mostly misunderstood for common cold. Bordetella pertussis was first isolated in pure culture in 1906 by Bordet and Gengou. B.pertussis is a small, gram –negative, aerobic coccobacillus of 0.8 ?m by 0.4 ?m. (Finger & von Koenig, 1996). It is arranged singly or in small groups. They also have pili-like filaments and are non-motile. B.pertussis is the most fastidious bacteria. It is transmitted from person – to – person through aerosolized droplets. (Baron, 1996) Figure 1 : Bordetella pertussis, the agent of pertussis or whooping cough. Gram stain. (CDC) (Todar, 2004) Pathogenicity B.pertussis causes respiratory tract infection in humans and warm blooded animals (Brenner et. al, 2005). The incubation period of this bacterium is 7-10 days. The bacterial cells “colonize only the ciliated cells of the respiratory mucosa.” (“Bacteria Genomes”). After the onset of the infection, the cells colonize in the mucosal membrane of the respiratory tract. The attachment of the B.pertussis occurs with the help of a pertussis toxin produced by the bacterium. The filaments those are present in the bacteria acts as a bridge between the bacterium and the ciliary receptor. Figure 2. Colonization of tracheal epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis  (Todar, 2004) This pertussis toxin is highly toxic and has a number of virulent factors. The adjuvant effect of pertussis toxin on the human body results in lymphocytosis and hypoglycemia within 3 hours in the ciliated epithelial cells and also causes ciliostasis. The adenylate cyclase toxin and tracheal cytotoxin combines with pertussis toxin to cause ciliostasis. The same toxins inhibit the phagocytic activities of the host. The phagocytic activities include chemo taxis, engulfment, the oxidative burst, and bactericidal killing. The adenylate cyclase is a hemolysin that causes lysis of the red blood cells. The tracheal cytotoxin stops the beating mechanism of the ciliated cells. This toxin then kills the ciliated cells and extrudes it from the mucosa. It also stimulates the release of the Interleukin – I, thus causing fever. (Baron, 1996 & Todar, 2004) Signs and Symptoms The first stage symptoms of pertussis are cough, low –grade fever, running nose, sneezing, etc. After 7 – 10 days, the nasal discharge gets thickened and the cough also gets severe. This leads to severe upper respiratory congestion in infants. This is the second stage. It lasts for 1-2 weeks. The third stage is the more complicated stage. The coughing increases very heavily that the child will cough more than 5 times during a single respiration and have a sudden intake of air, causing a whooping sound. The sound is caused due to the narrowed glottis. At this stage vomiting, weight loss, tongue protruding, eyes bulging are most common. Pneumonia, the serious complication of pertussis, results in the 90% of the deaths in children under the age of 3. The infection of the bacterium causes substantial immunity. This substantial immunity lasts for many years. The second infections are more frequent in adults and are usually not severe. The infants and children are highly prone to the lethality of this disease. The children who are suffering from whooping cough are prone to pneumonia. This ...Show more

Summary

WHOOPING COUGH (PERTUSSIS) Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease, which is transmitted through air. It is highly communicable and nearly 90% of the susceptible individuals develop the disease. (Brenner et. al, 2005). Whooping Cough or Pertussis is caused by the bacteria, Bordetella pertussis…
Author : loubaumbach
Pertussis, Whooping Cough essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the research paper on your topic
"Pertussis, Whooping Cough"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Related Essays

The affects of poverty on health
There has been a significant increase of poverty rate in USA in the 2009 with the official rate being 14.3% which was 1.1% more than the poverty rate in 2008. It was also seen that the poverty rate for children was higher than that of the older people with children forming 35.5 percent of people in poverty.
11 pages (2750 words) Research Paper
Vaccination of children. The importance of parents need to vaccinate their children
“Babies are born with some natural immunity which they get from their mother and through breast-feeding. This gradually wears off as the baby's own immune system starts to develop” (What is immunization and how does it work?, 2011).
7 pages (1750 words) Research Paper
Does the MMR vaccine cause an increase on the incidence of Autism
However, instead of protection, the children are facing a more complicated health risk due to a controversial issue that autism cases resulted to some MMR vaccinations recipient. Statistical reports of petition filed by some parents claiming allegedly that their children are victims of such adverse effect of MMR vaccination were significantly high in recent years.
5 pages (1250 words) Research Paper
Why We Should't VaccinateOur Children
Why We Shouldn’t Vaccinate Our Children Name: University: Introduction Vaccination is one of the many different ways in which our bodies get protection against disease-causing microbes. This type of immunity is called active acquired immunity. Immunity in children may generally be classified as either active or passive.
5 pages (1250 words) Research Paper
The Association of Chronic Cough and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in The Pediatric Population
Is there evidence to support a causal link between chronic cough and GERD in pediatric patients? 2. Has there been an increase in the prevalence of GERD in pediatric patients over the past 20-30 years, and if so, what are the proposed explanations? 3. Incidence of increased hospitalizations due to respiratory illness in pediatric patients with GERD?
7 pages (1750 words) Research Paper
Consumer needs, motivation, behavior, and decision making processes relevant to cough medicine strips
As cough helps the human body to get rid of foreign bodies that can cause harm to lungs and body, it is considered as a helpful mechanism. Cough basically occurs due to cold and allergies. In order to treat such cough, one can have a medicine containing
2 pages (500 words) Research Paper
Vaccine research paper. WHY WE SHOULDNT VACCINATE OUR CHILDREN
Passive naturally acquired immunity is acquired from the mother to the child through the passage of maternal antibodies to the fetus through the placenta. Passive
6 pages (1500 words) Research Paper
Chronic Cough and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Cough is the most common symptom for which patients seek medical attention. In adults, cough variant asthma, postnasal drip or rhinosinusitis are the most common causes of chronic cough in Western countries. A positive association between cough and weakly acidic reflux was found in a significant subgroup of patients with unexplained chronic cough.
8 pages (2000 words) Research Paper
Childhood Vaccinations and Immunizations
Childhood Vaccinations and Immunizations is a way through which parents keep their children safe from some diseases. When children are vaccinated against certain diseases, their bodies are given the ability to create more antibodies that help in fighting attacks by the disease that the children are vaccinated against.
7 pages (1750 words) Research Paper
California Vaccine Mandate Bill
In this work, there is an analysis of the Philosophical Belief Bill in California. The author claims that states of California and Vermont passed legislations that will remove the philosophical exemptions with effect from July 2016. Various laws shield minority groups' rights across the nation.
6 pages (1500 words) Research Paper
Get a custom paper written
by a pro under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT
Comments (0)
Rate this paper:
Thank you! Your comment has been sent and will be posted after moderation