Old adults experiencing chronic pain turn to several cognitive and behavioral strategies that might help them cope with such pain. During her research on chronic pain, she realized that about 50 percent of old people in the society experience chronic pain. This theory aims at controlling chronic pain based on Merton’s description.
The Roy Adaptation Model was used to deduce the adaptation to chronic pain model utilized in this theory. Several old adults suffer due to extreme chronic pain that has been undetected or undertreated by their care givers. This theory provides the coping process starts by identifying the causal stimuli and managing it effectively. Dunn’s theory was developed through induction, which is starting with observation and working towards generalization. During her research and teaching on chronic illnesses, Dunn observed the levels of chronic pain experienced by old people. For example, individuals suffering from arthritis attempt several cognitive and behavioral pain coping strategies due to high levels of chronic pain. Patients with arthritis used at least one coping strategy per day which includes coping self statements, exercise, diversion, and praying. Having made these observations, she aimed at describing chronic pain experiences, the frequency of occurrence, and the effectiveness of different coping strategies used.
The main concept in this theory is chronic pain which is an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience due to actual or potential tissue damage. Elderly people experience pain that persists beyond the normal tissue healing time of three months. Another major concept is the use of religion as a coping strategy. Elderly people suffering from pain engage in prayer in order to get relief or the ability to cope with such pain effectively. They turn to take their feelings away or give them the right procedure of treating their pain. Elders also utilize ...
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There is also some consideration of ways to minimise the likelihood of pain becoming a chronic problem, as well as how the pain can be avoided to some extent. Introduction In 2010 the Montreal based “International Pain Summit” declared that “Access to pain management is a fundamental human right’(Johnson, 2012).
This medical condition is defined as Chronic back pain is sometimes defined as “back pain that lasts for longer than 7-12 weeks. Others define it as pain that lasts beyond the expected period of healing, and acknowledge that chronic pain may not have well-defined underlying pathological causes.
Lower back area problems are increasing at a significant rate, most probably due to pressures on adult individuals, from within themselves and from their environment. Back pains have afflicted man for a long time since man is dependent on his back to do work (Taylor, 2003).
The author uses the Roy Adaptation Model to deduce the adaptation to chronic pain model utilized in the theory of Karen Dunn. This theory provides the coping process starts by identifying the causal stimuli and managing it effectively. Dunn’s theory was developed through induction, which is starting with observation and working towards generalization.
However, behavioral approaches to pain have brought significant observations in the examining acute and chronic pain. Therefore, writing about pain and its relationship with behaviorism is necessitated by the urgency to trace how chronic pain affects a person.
But Harkins, Price & Bush say that "chronic pain is prevalent among older adults, but it is a normal part of aging. Physical pathology and/or psychopathology are always involved (Harkins, Price & Bush 1994).
The job of the clinician or the nursing aide has to be both a combination of psychologist/psychiatrist and caregiver in order to be able to give the needed care to the elderly.
Pain, considered as the most common symptom and as the most tangible sign of distress among patients should thereby be understood among all. Pain should be treated as the ultimate enemy and therefore needs to be perceived and studied jointly in order to alleviate or limit its tenacity.
God has allowed pain in order to warn man of the proximate possibility of danger lurking inside his corporal system i.e. that something potentially or actually damaging has caused irregularity and imbalance in his body
The chronic sorrow experience depends on the individual and the circumstances that trigger it. It is cyclical, causing episodes of re-grief at any time. The model tells us there are coping strategies; internal that people find their own methods of getting through, and external support and comfort from others, including nurses and other health professionals.