This paper will give an overview on the history and role development of Advanced Practice Nurse: Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), Nurse Practitioner (NP), Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM), and the Nurse Executive (CNO). Focus is placed on evolution of…
remains a general consensus that the real credit for the evolution and practical implementation of APN History of Advanced Practice Nurse goes to the American Civil War 1861. That was when the APN implementation began processing and started developing (Keeling & Biglee, 2009). However, CRNA did not get introduced easily and the process did not go smooth because certain barriers regarding legislation cropped up during the early 1900’s. The nursing staff everywhere was not easily granted rights to administer anesthesia because such rights were questioned by the medical profession. People in the medical profession objected on grounds that the concept of nurses administering anesthesia would imply that they are practicing out of their scope which would not present a very nice image (Keeling & Biglee, 2009). Therefore, legislation in Kentucky (Frank VS South) nurses needed to be licensed to administer anesthesia. With time, things started developing and in 1931 foundation for the American Association of Nurse Anesthetist (AANA) was laid and 1945 the mandatory certification for CNRA’s got established which changed circumstances phenomenally (Ray, 2005). Other factors also assisted in the development like there were no professional nurses at that time and catholic sisters served as nurses. Also during the 20th century, the increase in immigration and trends toward industrialization and urbanization contributed significantly in refining the image of APN role in the healthcare system with the result that other nursing specialties emerged.
The approach of the Nurse Practitioner was such that primary care was provided to the poverty stricken immigrants during World War II so that more worthwhile opportunities got revealed to benefit NP (Keeling & Biglee, 2009). This approach proved to be effective as when physicians had too much on their plates and were too busy to care for all the wounded, the NPs were granted the right to go beyond the realm of caring and handle other ...
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