Erickson understood that people can display healthy psychological adjustment only when they are able to resolve the psychological conflicts that they experience in life (Shaffer, 2009, p. 41). Erikson believed that at each stage of their life, people must cope with social…
41). Hence, in his psychosocial theory, which was also influenced by his own life experience of being born, raised and settled in different countries, he emphasized the importance of social and cultural aspects of development as he observed “many similarities and differences in development across diverse social groups” (Shaffer, 2009, p. 41). Stages of Psychosocial Theory
In his theory, Erikson’s proposed eight stages (or psychosocial crisis) of developments, which occur during different ages of human life. The first stage (‘basic trust versus mistrust’), in which mother or care giver are the key social agents, occurs from birth to one year (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). In this stage, the infant’s chances of learning to trust others depends on his experience with mother or care giver and how his basic needs are fulfilled (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). Infant may develop a feeling of mistrust and view the world as dangerous place filled with unreliable people if his mother or care giver are rejecting and inconsistent in their care giving (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). The second stage (‘autonomy versus shame and doubt), in which parents are the key social agents, occurs between 1 to 3 years (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). In this stage, the challenge is to become independent from parents, and failure to do so leads to development of shame, and doubt in one’s abilities (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). The third stage (‘initiative versus guilt’), in which family is the key social agent, occurs between 3 to 6 years of age (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). The conflict occurs as children try to act like grown ups and takes up goals or activities which are beyond their capacity and which are in conflict with parents or family members (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). Feeling of guilt occurs as a result and hence, achieving ‘balance’ between initiative and encroaching upon rights or privileges of others is the challenge as it leads to successful ...
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(“Pediatric Growth and Development Research Paper - 1”, n.d.)
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(Pediatric Growth and Development Research Paper - 1)
“Pediatric Growth and Development Research Paper - 1”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/532105-pediatric-growth-and-development.
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