Patients of such nature may spread the condition to others unknowingly (Vandevante et al, 2011).
This paper looks into a case of a 51 year old patient suffering from fulminating Hepatitis B as a result of prolonged intravenous drug abuse. The fulminant condition under consideration is as a result of hepatitis B virus. Currently, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of fulminant hepatitis compared to other viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus attacks and replicates within hepatocytes. In terms of structure, hepatitis B virus has an outer shell and an inner core. The inner core bares the viral DNA, enzymes and proteins including hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and HBVe antigen (HBeAg). The outer shell has the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HbsAg), which is produced in excess by hepatocytes replicating the hepatitis B virus. In such situations, (HbsAg) appears in patients’ blood in the form of small spheres. Apart from (HbsAg), patients with acute hepatitis also have HBeAg in circulation (Carey, 2009).
In hepatitis B virus infections, destruction of hepatocytes is not as a result of the virus, but it is caused by the host’s immune response to the viral antigens. The cellular immune response is the primary cause of pathogenesis, but the humoral immune response is less significant. Antigen presenting cells initiate the cellular immune response by presenting the viral epitopes to antigen specific T-lymphocytes. After production, the T cells go through a stage of maturation and expansion and then later migrate into the liver. In cases of acute HBV, a bigger number of viral DNA is cleared from liver cells through a non-cytocidal process caused by inflammatory byproducts derived from CD8+ T lymphocytes. The release of inflammatory products occurs once CD+ T cells are stimulated by interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alfa, which are products of CD4+ T cells (Gish, 2009).
The inflammatory byproducts lead ...
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I. Understanding of the problem A . Studies proved that drug users start young. 1 .Drug Abuse in America reported 15.9 million youth users 2. The USDA confirms that youth starts to use drugs at age 15 3. Galigher, Paul that drug use is also prevalent in adults and problem of drug addiction cannot be solved.
This can lead to drug addiction and also has adverse effects on health and physical appearance. Medicines that most commonly come under the criteria of drug abuse are pain killers, anti depressants and stimulants. Usually individuals take medicines for the causes their consultants prescribe them however studies have shown that approximately 20% individuals in the United States of America use medicines other than the reasons that have been prescribed to them.
The general conclusions and propositions are an indication that quantitative research was also done in order to support the facts in this report. Informed assertions, is the knowledge one gets through observation of the events around them. This was also employed in the report to relate what the reader knows to what the author is explaining.
Not only are teenagers abusing illegal drugs, but they are also misusing prescription drugs that have been given to them or to friends or family members by a medical professional. Studies show that one out of every nine teenagers abuses prescription medications (Brisher, 2012) while a staggering 25% have used illicit drugs in the past year (Brisher).
Fulminating Hepatitis B secondary to a lifetime use of IV drug abuse. Fulminating Hepatitis B secondary to a lifetime use of IV drug abuse Introduction Understanding how fulminant hepatitis occurs is an essential step in the management and treatment of acute hepatitis.
This discussion explores the societal, medical, and psychological theories of drug abuse and the perceptions of the society towards the use of alcohol and prescription drugs.
Sociological theories explain the causes of drug abuse to be societal with economic, social,
In order to resists temptations and cope with addiction people often need professional help. It is the reason why there is a well-developed network of social organizations and community services which help people to
Drug abuse in America has attracted a global attention because the number of drug abusers and the abused drugs keeps increasing year after year (Swartz 24). There is a need to commiserate the causes of drug
The society today is poisoned with all sorts of banned substances that end up in the custody of juveniles in one way or the other, who end up consuming them inappropriately thereby putting their lives on the line, as well as clouding the future of the society as a whole. One in every three juveniles in America has had contact with drugs.
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
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