Both gastroesophageal reflux disease as well as Peptic ulcer disease and are common disorders of the gastrointestinal that are bound to be frequently encountered within the clinical environment by practitioners in the medical field. It is imperative for one to be able to clearly…
There are symptoms and diagnosis that may help identify the type of gastrointestinal disorder that one may be suffering from (Kahrilas 2008).
Peptic ulcer disease is the most common ulcer of an area of the gastrointestinal tract, usually acidic and extremely painful. A higher percentage of these ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pyloris. Epithelial cells in the stomach and duodenum secrete mucus in response to epithelial lining irritation. Gastric and duodenal mucosa exist in the form of a gel layer impermeable to acid and pepsin (Kurata et al 1997).
A physiologic balance does exist between gastric acid secretion and gastro duodenal mucosal defense. Peptic ulcers occur due to disruption of the balance between the aggressor factors and defensive mechanisms. The aggressor factors include NSAID’s, H pyloris infection, alcohol, bile salts, acid and pepsin which allow back diffusion of hydrogen ions leading to epithelial cell injury. Defensive mechanisms include tight intercellular junctions, mucus, mucosal blood flow, cellular restitution and epithelial renewal (Kurata et al 1997).
Symptoms of peptic ulcers include abdominal pain, epigastric with severity relating to mealtimes which manifest three hours after taking a meal. Other symptoms include Bloating and abdominal fullness, water brush, nausea and copious vomiting. Pain caused by peptic ulcers may be felt around the navel up to the sternum, this pain normally lasts for a few minutes although it may potentially last for hours and may worsen when the stomach is empty (Kurata et al 1997).
Diagnosis is mainly established based on the symptoms characteristics. Tests such as endoscopies or barium contrast X-rays help to confirm the diagnosis. An Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is usually carried out on patients suspected to be having peptic ulcers (Kahrilas 2008).
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