The first step involves implantation of the B-cells which can be done through donor pancreas and molecular genetic engineering which can help in replacing the defective B-cells in diabetic patients. However, certain obstacles are present which include the reduced number of donors, immune reactions and rejections in receiving patients. According to the research, different types of sensors can be utilized for glucose monitoring which include enzymatic sensors and optical sensors and some other sensors which are currently under study. Enzymatic sensors consist of an immobilized enzyme with an electrochemical transducer which will be a part of the artificial pancreas. This sensor will then transmit glucose levels monitored signals to an implanted insulin pump. Some problems that may arise include inflammatory reactions which can reject the sensor or even reduce the glucose levels. A more advanced sensor is optical sensor which is both non-invasive and advanced. With a light beam entering a blood vessel, the glucose concentration in the blood can be detected by the absorption pattern of the infra-red radiations. The obstacles which include interference of other molecules like water or hemoglobin the absorption pattern are being overcome by new methods like Kromoscopy. This analytical method separates the absorption pattern of glucose more efficiently and is a better technique. Implantable insulin pump is the next intervention that completes the artificial pancreas. Insulin pumps release insulin at the right time and correct amounts according to the information relayed by the glucose sensors. Implantable insulin pumps (IIPs) are preferred over the previously used external pumps because they are more reliable and function in a more accurate manner (Jaremko & Rorstad 1998). An IIP is surgically implanted and would replace the conventional insulin injection administered per day. The total life-span of this implant will be of three years and will pump insulin according to the glucose concentrations. According to a cohort study the glycosylated hemoglobin levels were found to be reduced from 7.4%to 7.1 % after an observed therapy with IIPs for twelve months. Some complications occurring with the pump include catheter blockage and mechanical failure of the pump and insulin antibody formation. The catheter blockage was discovered when the infusions were found to be slow and irregular. A control system is required for the regulation of the glucose levels and it would be implanted in the artificial pancreas. The system will assess the glucose levels and then accordingly allow the infusion of insulin into the bloodstream. The concept of artificial implanted pancreas can be very efficiently projected if all the three components are projected and designed with the right technology and design. The major obstacle in the achievement of this concept is glucose sensors because of several reasons like incompatibility, self-monitoring problems and properly executed technology (Jaremko & Rorstad 1998). Renard et al in 2010 established the feasibility of the artificial pancreas through a research on intraperitoneal insulin pumps and glucose sensors which was considered more effective rather than subcutaneous implanted pumps and glucose sensors. Eight diabetic patients were used for a randomized control trial and comparison
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