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Nursing - Schizophrenia and Psychosis - Term Paper Example

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Individuals with positive symptoms generally lose touch with the reality. The symptoms are not common in healthy individuals. The symptoms can be severe or hardly noticeable and this depends on whether the person is getting treatment. Positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and movement disorders. Negative symptoms are linked with disruptions to normal behaviors and emotions. The symptoms are very hard to identify as part of the disorder and they can be mistaken for conditions such as depression. Negative symptoms include lack of happiness in everyday life, flat effect, speaking little, and lack of ability to start and maintain planned activities. Cognitive symptoms are slight and like negative symptoms, they can be difficult to identify. Cognitive symptoms include trouble paying attention, poor executive functioning, and difficulties with working memory (National Institute of Mental Health, 2009). Causes and Treatment The causes of schizophrenia are not known and scientists think genes and environment, and different brain structure and chemistry cause it. Schizophrenia treatment focuses on eradicating the disease symptoms. Treatments used include antipsychotic medications (such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, perphenazine, and fluphenazine), and other psychosocial treatments. Psychosocial treatments assist schizophrenia individuals already stabilized by antipsychotic medication to cope with everyday challenges of the disease such as work, communication,

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self-care, creating and maintaining relationships (National Institute of Mental Health, 2009). Psychosis Psychosis is mental condition that is serious but treatable and it is caused by disturbance in the functioning of the brain. An individual with the condition losses contact with reality and it features changes in the individual’s perceptions, behavior, beliefs, and thoughts (Janssen-Ortho, 2009). Symptoms Psychosis symptoms are categorized into positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and emotional symptoms. Delusions and hallucinations are generally referred to as positive symptoms because they express behavior rooted in disordered perceptions, beliefs, and thinking. Other positive symptoms include hostility, agitation, suspiciousness, and grandiosity. On the other hand, apathy, emotional flatness, and social withdrawal are referred to as negative symptoms. They are negative symptoms because they are an outcome of the things (such as communication or social skills) that the disease has taken away from the individual. Cognitive symptoms include though disorder and poor concentration. Emotional symptoms include depression and blunted emotions. It is important to note that overlapping of the different symptoms can occur and thus, different individuals may experience a combination of symptoms or different symptoms (Janssen-Ortho, 2009). Treatment It is crucial to treat psychosis immediately and antipsychotics are important drugs used in the treatment. There are numerous antipsychotic medications; the form of medication and the prescribed dose varies from individual to individual. The treatment also depends on the patient factors such as if the condition is first or a recurrent episode and the stage of the disease. Psychosocial therapy is also important in the treatment of schizophrenia and it usually starts when the acute stage has passed and symptoms start to diminish
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Summary

Schizophrenia and Psychosis Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a brain disorder, which is severe, chronic, and disabling. The disorder affects close to 1% of the Americans. Individuals with the disorder hear voices that other individuals do not hear. At times, they believe that other individuals are controlling their thoughts, planning to harm them, or reading their minds…
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