4. Find and list the statistics on tobacco use by adolescents in your state or county.
5. Find two instances of behavior risk on women in education and summarize and provide your source.
Discussion 1. Why is poverty a health risk for children? Cite your source of information. Poverty is a health risk for children due to the direct effects of low income, environmental effects in living in a poor neighborhood, and psychosocial effects of poverty (Blair et al., 2010, 82). Poverty is a health risk for children because the scarcities in resources exposed children to certain health and behavioral problems such as malnutrition due to insufficient or inappropriate food, respiratory infections and increased infection risk due to damp, cold and overcrowded housing, increased accident risk due to unsafe play areas, and behavioral problems due to parental stress and conflict, lack of supervision and low self-esteem and powerlessness. 2. List and briefly describe three health conditions that have disparities in terms of risk (danger of having the condition increased) or rates (increased numbers have this condition) for children (higher for some groups, such as racial or ethnic). Cite the sources of your information). The three health conditions that have disparities in terms of risk or rates include childhood asthma, childhood obesity, and preterm births. Childhood asthma is a growing epidemic and children and adolescents under the age of 17 are twice more likely to suffer from asthma than adults.
In addition, Black and low income children are disproportionately affected and are not only more likely to ever have had asthma than White or Latino children and children from higher-income families, but are also more likely to have suffered acute asthma attacks (NIHCM, 2007, 9). Yearly, 136,000 children seek emergency care because of asthma and according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, treatment of asthma in children less than 18 years of age costs $ 3.2 billion per year (NIHCM, 2007, 9). Obesity is prevalent among poor, ethnic, and racial groups. Treatments for obesity are six times more likely in children covered by Medicaid than by children under private insurance (1,115 per 100,000 versus 195 per 100,000) (NIHCM, 2007, 9). During 1999-2002, 31% of all children aged 6-19 were either at risk for obesity or overweight while 16.0% were considered overweight (NIHCM, 2007, 9). Latino children aged 2-18 are most likely to be overweight or at risk of being overweight, followed by Black children. Meanwhile, children belonging to families under 200% of the Federal Poverty Level are more likely to be overweight or at risk for being overweight (NIHCM, 2007, 9). Preterm infants are another health conditions with significant health disparities. During 1981-2006, preterm rates among non-Hispanic white mothers rose steadily, increased modestly among births to Hispanics, declined slightly for non-Hispanic black, and rates declined from all during 2007 and 2008. The 2007 preterm birth rate for non-Hispanic black infants (18.3%) was 59% higher than the rate for non-Hispanic white infants (11.5%) and 49% higher than the rate for Hispanic infants (12.3%). Non-Hispanic black infants are approximately three times as likely to be delivered extremely preterm as non-Hispanic white and Hispanic infants (1.9% compared with 0.6%). Among the Hispanic groups, extremely preterm birth was most common among births to Puerto Rican mothers (1.0% compared with 0.6%t for all other Hispanic groups) (Statistical data about preterm infants were derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011, p. 78). 3. Locate three HP 2020 objectives related to