H. (see appendix) who suffered from postpartum haemorrhage after the birth of her second child. A pseudonym Mrs. H has been used to comply with Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), (2008) rules of confidentiality. It examines…
f interventions that were undertaken to prevent fatal consequences by using oxytocic drugs and fluid replacement as per trust guidelines; care given by the Midwife and also the psychosocial care that is needed to prevent women from suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Mrs H was found to have ruptured her uterus affecting the involution of the uterus and therefore causing the haemorrhage.
A postpartum haemorrhage is traditionally defined as bleeding from the genital tract of five hundred millilitres or more following delivery (Hofmeyr, 2001). This can result in death from hypovolemic shock. Sometimes these effects occur long after the event of the haemorrhage, which can cause women to experience psychological impact from effects such as post-traumatic stress disorder. This essay focuses on two effects that can come as a result of postpartum haemorrhage: hypovolemic shock and post-traumatic stress disorder.
The basic definition of haemorrhage is the abnormal loss of blood (Varney, Kriebs, & Gegor 2004, p. 925). Intrapartum haemorrhage (IPH, occurring during delivery) and bleeding that is considered primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH, occurring immediately after delivery) is the experience of excessive blood loss during the course of delivery or within the 24 hour period after labour and for which the source of the blood is the genital tract (Crafter 2011, p. 149). Women in labour suffer from substantial fluid loss; so they need to be kept well hydrated to ensure enough circulating volumes to enable them to cope with any excessive blood loss (Hofmeyr and Mohlala 2001, p. 646). After childbirth there is the risk of haemorrhage that can come from a variety of locations. Immediate haemorrhage is more commonly associated with mortality and can come from different factors surrounding the birth. In as much as 90% of the cases of immediate post-birth haemorrhage the cause is uterine atony which has a number of causes, including incomplete delivery of the ...
Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder that can be triggered after someone has experienced a psychologically traumatic event. A traumatic event that can spark post-traumatic stress disorder is often a life-threatening situation that an individual is personally involved in, such as feeling threatened, or else involves death, physical, psychological, or sexual virtues.
On the other hand, when this anxiety reaches more than normal levels or extreme levels based on the severity of the situations (for example: War-like situations), individuals will enter the state of helplessness and uncertainty, leading to accumulation of stress.
Moreover, the disorder is perceived to be higher in females. In this article, the researchers try to compare if a kind of cognitive behavioural therapy is better than a supportive intervention to treat PTSD among female military personnel. The researchers share that attention was focused on PTSD after several unfortunate events such as the September 11 attack, Iraq war and Hurricane Katrina.
PTSD is related to life-altering or life-threatening situations such as battlefield conditions in war, rape, assault, and other emergency situations where an individual or people closely related to an individual suffer tragic violence and the threat of death.
It is one of the fundamental beliefs of the discipline of psychiatry that traumatic events can give way to mental disorders. These disorders have been known by varied names since times immemorial until in 1980 they were formally come to be known as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Gill, 2007, p.
PTSD entails invasive and frequent memories concerning the trauma and avoiding circumstances that remind the victim of the previous trauma. The victim develops fear whenever he or she encounters a similar situation that that is likely to cause the actual events.
The onset of PTSD comes as a result of the human brain attempting to protect the individual against the intensity of the traumatic incident. It is a normal function of the brain to react in a way that promotes coping in the individual, and each person is unique in how their brain responds.
A pseudonym Mrs. H has been used to comply with Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), (2008) rules of confidentiality. It examines pathophysiology of postpartum haemorrhage; a major cause of maternal death in developing and developed countries (Lombard and Pattinson, 2009).
It is not necessary that every person with such emotional and physical background will develop PTSD. It varies from individual to individual and depends mainly on the duration and intensity of the event. The main issues are how the first responders of PTSD reacts after any stressful event and how can the victims of PTSD be managed through coping mechanisms and by applying one of the widely practiced method known as Critical Incident Stress Debriefing.
107). There are many traumatic experiences that fall outside the ambit of what could be described as the normal human experience. PTSD is usually diagnosed in the survivors of such traumatic events. Such traumas may be of personal nature like rape or
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