Medical adherence has been defined by Osterberg & Blaschke, (2005) as “the extent to which patients take medications as prescribed by their health care providers”. It has been reported as a crucial factor determining the health and well being of elderly population by the World Health Organization (Chung et al., 2008). The issue has been reported to have high prevalence varying from 8-71%, 13-93% during various studies. It has been estimated to result in huge economic burden as well as high mortality (Unni, 2008). Recent evidences indicate that only 50% of the prescribed doses are actually taken by individuals diagnosed with chronic diseases. Of these patients approximately 22% take medication in quantities lesser than the amount recommended, 12% do not fill their prescription and 12% buy the medication but forego them entirely. Though race, ethnicity and age have not been reported to be a risk factor for medication non-adherence, the issue is rendered critical among elderly patients due to the high vulnerability of this age group to chronic illnesses (Kocureck, 2009). In the light of above discussion the importance of research investigating the various aspects of the medication adherence in elderly population is highlighted. The current research aims to examine the prevalence rates of medication adherence in elderly population. Literature Review High prevalence and large economic burden of medical non adherence has led to extensive studies and investigations enabling an understanding of the issue and devising adherence strategies. However despite the prolific research conducted during the last three decades an optimal strategy is lacking and hence the prevalence rates for non adherence are still on a rise. An estimated 100 billion dollar remains the annual cost of dealing with complications such as hospitalization, disability, disease aggravation mortality etc resulting as a consequence of non adherence (Wertheimer & Santella, 2003). On the basis of causes of non-adherence two types of medication non-adherence have been identified: intentional and unintentional. While the latter has been attributed to forgetfulness or incidental causes; the former is usually reported in patients who have been taking medications but discontinue upon feeling better or worse. However later research has shown that patient’s belief is an important contributor to forgetfulness in taking medication rendering ‘forgetting to take medication’ not a purely unintentional type of non-adherence (Unni, 2008). The major obstacles to medication resulting in non-adherence include forgetfulness, different priorities, deliberate omission of doses, information deficit and certain psychological factors. While the aforementioned factors are at least partially under the control of patients, certain factors such as cost, patient lifestyle inconsistent with medication timing and complex medication regime are important contributing factors attributed to the health care provider (Osterberg & Blaschke, 2005). Six patterns of medication adherence have been identified in patients with chronic diseases. First group adheres to the prescribed doses and timings fully, second is characterized by delays but with complete doses, third miss a single doses occasionally and also are inconsistent with
Contents Specific Aim 3 Literature Review 4 References 8 Medication Adherence in Elders Research Proposal Specific Aim Advanced health care facilities and improved amenities have led to remarkable rise in life expectancy, the gain being as high as 30 years in western European countries, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand; and even higher in Japan, Spain and Italy…
The research is being proposed to look at the role of parents within the cultural setting in their children’ access to healthcare as suggested by Wright and Newman-Giger; and to formulate recommendations to enhance health outcomes among the children afflicted with asthma and improve their quality of life.
That this association has been quite intriguing fro nurses emanates from the studies that have been conducted with quite a number of study reports indicating a connection between obesity and antipsychotic medication. The suggested association has particularly been linked with metabolic effects that result in weight gain, obesity, and other cardiovascular complications, which often turn out to be fatal.
Introduction Most psychologists have undertaken research in the past regarding the relationship between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the bipolar disorder. There are also studies on the differences between bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. Primarily, bipolar patients have been found to be having a high personal and family history of suicidal attempts compared to the bipolar I patients.
The research is being proposed to look at the role of parents within the cultural setting in their children’ access to healthcare as suggested by Wright and Newman-Giger (2010); and to formulate recommendations to enhance health outcomes among the children afflicted with asthma and improve their quality of life.
Therefore, it is a source of rallying point for the medical community, to find better ways of administering treatment to facilitate faster relief as well as rehabilitation on a long term basis for patients. On an evaluation of the present scenario relating to combating the problem, it transpire that the improper appreciation of the components of Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome and Time (PICOT) has remained contributory factor in impending the progress in this regards.
Incorporating these suggestions through necessary structural, environmental and infrastructural changes can give an impetus to this success plan but then how can these changes be brought about with all the difficulties underlying it? The general apathy for everyone is the attitudinal shift one has to make to adjust in acceptance of these changes as the tendency to seek new avenues is difficult and stressful on the persons and institutions involved.
The application of the social care provisions identified here shows how a specific social care perspective could be used within a practice setting to help the elderly with dementia. For this we have to identify the problems associated with a person having dementia and also identify the social care provisions that could be laid out for tackling of all dementia related problems.
Although there are many different kinds of abuse, the planned report will concentrate primarily on physical abuse. Not only residential facility workers, but also individuals’ own families, will be profiled in terms of likely warning signs of abuse, about which residential
The study will use descriptive and cross-sectional study design because it involved establishing of information concerning adherence to treatment. Systematic sampling technique will be used to select the participants. A self-administered questionnaire will be was used to collect data from the study subjects.