Epidemiology Epidemiology is the study of occurrence, spread and the quantification of the mechanism that underlies the disease to the healthy population. The epidemiological studies help the practitioners to find out the root cause of the disease and develop the treatment methods accordingly…
(Friis and Sellers, 2009). Epidemiological activity is used since many decades. The statistical tools are the most powerful device used for identifying the risk factors and the relationship between various factors such as environmental factors, drugs, genetics, hormones, occupation, nutrition and viruses, bacteria. It was the epidemiological studies that revealed the relationship between Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and cervical cancer. (Friis and Sellers, 2009). The US centre for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] estimates that most of the new cases of HPV are teens and young adults. They have estimated that 6 million new cases are recorded every year in US. In 2007, the CDC has announced that one among the four teenage girls ages 13 to 19 are having HPV. Among the teens, 40 percent of the children who had sex were found to have Human papilloma virus. (Lyon and Antoniades, 2009). Similarly CDC has also found that 20 Americans are infected with the HPV and many of them are not aware of it. Uses of Epidemiology 1. To study the history of the disease and the changes in the disease states. It also helps to study the history of the healthy populations in the locality. 2. To measure the true dimension of the disease and the healthy individuals. The prevalence of the disease based on the risk factors, the distribution of disability and mortality can be understood using epidemiological studies. 3. ...
(Friis and Sellers, 2009). 6. To identify the root of the chronic diseases and provide the complete history of the diseases to help the practitioners and people eradicate the disease from the epidemic regions. 7. To confirm the risk factors and causes of the disease using the knowledge obtained through studies for the risky and multiple causative disease. (Friis and Sellers, 2009). Human Papilloma virus: Papilloma viruses are DNA viruses that infect epithelia causing a variety of lesions, warts and carcinoma. Human Papilloma viruses (HPV) are ubiquitous in nature causing cervical and other anogenital cancers. HPV infections are most common in the young and sexually active people within the age limit of 20 – 24. Human papilloma viruses form two groups; Genital and cutaneous HPVs. Most of the papilloma viruses are host specific. Human papilloma virus has an icosahedral symmetry with 72 capsomers arranged in the pentameric structure. It has a circular double stranded DNA of 8 kb long. It has three types of genes: early genes, late genes and control genes. HPV first infects the basal epithelium and inserts itself into the cell. It then dissociates and produces low copy number episomes. The HPV gets loosely linked to the keratocyte differentiation and divides as the keratinocyte undergoes differentiation. The major oncogenic proteins involved in the HPV carcinogenesis are E6 and E7 which interfere in the cell cycle control mechanisms. E6 on binding with the cellular protein AP, degrades the p53 through ubiquitin- directed proteolysis. P53 is essential for DNA repair, when this molecule is degraded; it affects the ell cycle control. The result is genetic instability and accumulation of the mutants ...
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(Epidemiology Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words)
“Epidemiology Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/60497-epidemiology.
Epidemiology involves studying about diseases and applying the results to help control diseases in the society. Epidemiology studies bring solution to health problems and other health related risk factors that affect a population. Epidemiology is a branch of medicine that includes different methods that are targeted towards performing epidemiological investigations.
Various methods of investigating the spread of the disease within populations can be used, such as surveillance and descriptive studies to determine distribution within a population, and also analytical studies to determine why particular members of a population size are more susceptible, among others.
AIDS is pandemic and encompasses many epidemics of different subtypes. The leading factor for its multiplication and spread include sexual transmission and vertical transmission where the fetus gets the disease from the mother (Kallings, 2008).
However, opioids have several side effects, which make them health hazard if abused. These side effects include drowsiness; vomiting, nausea, restlessness, constipation, hallucination, and hypotension. Used alone or in combination with other pain management substances, opioids could be a basis for adequate pain relief.
Over the last two decades, hookworm infections have attracted the attention of numerous physicians due to the adverse effects associated with these infections. Much of the negative effects that come along with hookworm infections are of more relevance in the developing world than in the first world countries.
The patient lives with multiple adult migrant workers and their children, and attends a school at which additional migrant children, besides local children, are present. Epidemiological Triangle According to the epidemiological triangle, changes in one of the elements of the triangle can influence the occurrence of disease by increasing or decreasing a person’s risk for disease (X.X.
Westminster, City of, inner borough of Greater London, SE England, on the Thames River (Encyclopedia). The location for majority of the principal offices and residences of Great Britain's national government is in the city of Westminster. Important offices and departments are in Whitehall and Downing streets.
To control tuberculosis two important tools are the knowledge of epidemiology and good management. The control of tuberculosis has posed varied problems in the past decades. Consideration in commissioning and contracting
énez-Alcaide, E.; García-González, L.; Guerrero-Ramos, F.; Pérez-Cadavid, S.; Arrébola-Pajares, A.; Sopeña-Sutil, R.;, Benítez-Salas, R.; Díaz-González, R. & Tejido-Sánchez, A. (2013). Healthcare-associated infections in a department of urology: Incidence and patterns
The study then makes a retrospective analysis to compare the frequency of the presence of risk factor exposure in each group to establish the relationship that subsists between the disease and the risk factor (Gordis, 2009).
Thus, a case study is principally
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