The condition of perennial hypertension in the patient is a leading cause for heart attacks or failures, stroke and renal failure. While physiology of secondary hypertension is well understood, it is the pathophysiology of essential hypertension that remains an area of concern for medical researchers.
Systemic vascular resistance along with cardiac output causes blood pressure. That means a person with hypertension may have an increased vascular resistance, an enhanced cardiac output, or both. In older patients, systemic vascular resistance due to stiffness of the vasculature is a dominant reason for hypertension. Increased release of peptides such as endothelins or angiotensin could be the cause of elevated vascular tone. Vasoconstriction occurs due to increased calcium in vascular muscle. Increased Vascular stiffness and systemic vascular resistance lead to enhanced load on the left ventricle causing left ventricular hypertrophy or diastolic dysfunction (Foex, 2004).
In younger patient, the left ventricle pulse pressure is comparatively low; however, with ageing, due to stiffening of the aorta the pulse pressure increases resulting into left ventricular overload causing ventricular hypertrophy. The pulse pressure widening with ageing is an indication of coronary heart disease (Foex, 2004).
More than 90% hypertension cases do not lead to any known cause. Several pathophysiologic factors have been found to have genesis in increased nervous system activity, enhanced production of sodium-retaining hormones, vasoconstriction, high-sodium intake, inadequate calcium and potassium intake, increased renin secretion resulting into enhanced production of aldosterone and aniotensin II, abnormality in vessels carrying blood, diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, insufficient vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) (Oparil, 2003).
According to Williams (2013), ...
Cite this document
(“Hypertension/pathophysiology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/nursing/615699-hypertensionpathophysiology
(Hypertension/Pathophysiology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
“Hypertension/Pathophysiology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/615699-hypertensionpathophysiology.
Normal levels of BP defined by Joint National Committee 7 (JNC 7) state values of 120 mm of Hg and 80 mm of Hg for systolic and diastolic respectively (Chobanian et al. 2003). The American Heart Association (AHA) defines hypertension as systolic and diastolic BP higher than 140 and 90 mm of Hg respectively (Carretero & Oparil 2000).
According to WHO there are at least 970 million people in the world who suffer from high blood pressure and in the same time WHO recognizes the hypertension as the most significant factor for premature death world-wide. In the same time WHO is predicting that the problem is only growing and is estimating that until year 2025 there will 1.25 billion people who will suffer from hypertension (Kearney et al.
Secondary hypertension is caused by the presence of another disease condition and this account about 5 to 10% of the total patients. (Cheriyan, McEniery and Wilkinson 2010). Primary hypertension is predominant among the people (about 95%) and secondary hypertension is found only in 5% of the hypertensive patients.
Hypertension is a symptomless condition, though the below could indirectly point towards the condition: a. Blood spots observed in the eyes b. Dizziness c. Facial flushing (www.heart.org) B. The Main Causes of Hypertension The principle causes include genetics and lifestyle (www.heart.org).
Hypertension is dangerous. Even moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure leads to shortened life expectancy. At severely high pressures, defined as mean arterial pressures 50% or more above average, a person can expect to live no more than a few years unless appropriately treated.
However, with new technologies and innovations in treatment, survival rates for these patients have improved (CDC, 2009).
The normal pulmonary artery pressure is at 14 mmHg and in periods of heavy activity like exercise and distention of pulmonary
Hypertension is a huge problem in the USA the world general. The number of recorded deaths that were related to hypertension in 2011 in the USA was 27,853 (Deaths: Final Data for 2011, 2011).
Hypertension cases are grouped into two: primary hypertension and secondary
act strongly enough to push blood through the body, while diastolic failure occurs when the left ventricle cannot relax enough to allow in more blood due to stiffening of the muscles. Common causes of left-sided heart failure include excessive consumption of alcohol, history of
The most essential primary preventive measures are proper diet, avoidance of stress, stop smoking, regular exercise (Balakrishnan, 2004). However, age and gender is non-modifiable risk factors meaning there is nothing much that one can do to modify them. Five
Hypertension is one of the primary risks for a number of conditions that include stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure. One of the special prevalence of hypertension experienced in both males and females is an increase in blood pressure with the advancement of age.
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Hypertension/pathophysiology for FREE!