Reflection can be done at an individual level or even in a group scenario (Atkins & Murphy, 1995:2).
Reflection is undergoes three stages. The first is when an individual comes to the realization that they are harboring uncomfortable feelings and thoughts on a particular situation. It stems from the realization that the knowledge one was applying in given situation is not sufficient enough to give a concrete explanation to what could have been happening then. This feeling is often characterized by dissatisfaction or uncertainty. The second stage is a critical analysis of the prevailing situation and encompasses an analysis of both feelings and the existing body of knowledge. The most important factor is to avoid feelings that could obstruct rational judgment. The final stage in reflective practice is development of a whole new perspective on the issue of focus. This could be seen in developing better clarification, a new perceptive towards the same issue and of course a new way of thinking about something (Atkins & Murphy, 1995:4).
Reflection on action is an afterthought of an event while reflection in action happens while one is in the process of engaging in an activity. With reflection on action, analysis and interpretation is done afterwards to uncover the knowledge used and explain the feelings associated with that particular activity. The practitioner is driven by the urge to speculate on other possible ways of handling the same situation or what other knowledge could have been useful given the same circumstances. Reflection in action is when the practitioner recognizes the situation at hand while in the process of doing the activity and thinks about it while in the process (Atkins & Murphy, 1995:5).
Gibb’s model of reflection emphasizes the fact that reflection does not have to an individual undertaking. To better take advantage of the reflective process, one should seek for a different body of opinion so as to reinforce