Maternal/ Child: Teratogenic Medication/Drug Name Institution Date Abstract This paper discusses alcohol as a teratogen and how it affects pregnant women and fetuses or embryos in their wombs. Alcohol ingested during pregnancy leads to the birth of handicapped children…
A woman who takes alcohol during pregnancy and it is proved that the tendency affected her child could be charged in a court of law. Defects involved with consumption of alcohol during pregnancy include facial abnormalities, growth deficiencies and psychomotor disorders. No woman who is expecting should ingest alcohol during her pregnancy owing to proven side effects. Maternal/ Child: Teratogenic Medication/Drug Teratogenic medication or drugs cause disturbance to the development of the embryo or fetus in the mother’s womb. They arrest the pregnancy or lead to a birth defects or congenital malformation. Groups of teratogens include maternal infections, chemicals, drugs and radiation. Alcohol is classified under addictive drug type of teratogens. There is no safe period during pregnancy when a woman can take alcohol or safe amount of it. Pregnant mothers who consume alcohol give birth to children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome characterized by the child having unusually low weight at birth, small head circumference, flat mid face, small eyes that are widely spaced, thin upper lip and short upturned nose (Jones and Bass, 2003). When a pregnant woman ingests alcohol, so does their unborn child; the alcohol easily moves through the placenta to the baby. This paper seeks to discuss alcohol as a teratogen, its effect on fetal development, its class and what nursing actions are relevant to the pregnant mother and fetus. Almost three decades ago Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was rediscovered by Jones and Smith, and from that time, a lot of cases have come to light. Smith, Jones and other colleagues came to an understanding that many children exposed to alcohol during the prenatal period exhibited a pattern or set of abnormalities being psychomotor disorders, growth deficiencies and facial abnormalities. Study of the FAS exposes certain categories. First is the prenatal and postnatal growth retardation with characteristics such as length, weight and head circumference which is below normal size for gestational age. Second is the central nervous system involvement with “… indications of neurological abnormality, developmental delay or intellectual impairment” (Jones and Bass, 2003). Lastly are facial abnormalities with at least “… the following signs: head circumference below the third percentile; narrow eye slits; flat and long upper lip; underdeveloped mid face and flattened nose bridge” (Armstrong, 2003). Fetal alcohol syndrome was a rediscovery not a discovery by Jones and Smith because even from long ago people knew of the relationship between intake of alcohol and the defects it causes during pregnancy (Jones and Bass, 2003). There is no safe dose of alcohol that one can take during pregnancy and neither is there a safe period during pregnancy that one can take it. FAS claims the seat of the leading known cause of mental retardation and defects in infants around the world as stated by Jones and Bass (2003). Alcohol is a socially accepted legal drug and many pregnant women continue to take it especially deep into pregnancy. However, some expecting mothers ingest alcohol before they are aware of their pregnancy. Golden (2005) submits that women who ingest alcohol during pregnancy are prime candidates of abortion. Elective abortion is accepted as a solution for FAS, as opposed to a family encountering consequent pains of a child birthed with defects due to alcohol ingested during pregnancy. The elective abortion would ...
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The Body Mass Index (BMI) is most widely used measure of obesity (Garde, 2010). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), obesity “is a BMI superior or equal to 30 and morbid obesity is assumed from a BMI of 40 and beyond” (Garde, 2010, p.2). In the USA in the ranking of health indicators that are a matter of deep concern regarding the health of the nation, obesity ranks second after physical activity.
There are some things which cannot be expressed in words; you need to experience it if you want to cognize it. For example, the feeling of pain, excitement, anger, depression and love are all such states of mind which a person can fathom only when he goes through it.
These include illegibly written prescriptions, dispensing errors, calculation errors, etc. Among the above cited errors, some of the errors are considered to be most crucial and they have considerable impact on the patients, for example, the monitoring errors and the administering errors.
According to WHO, maternal death refers to the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days after the termination of her pregnancy (Temmerman & Verstraelen, 2004). For a death to be considered maternal, it must have been caused or provoked by the pregnancy or its management notwithstanding the duration and site of the pregnancy.
“In developing countries, mothers, children and young adults under the age of 15 make up about 65% of the population” (“Chapter 1 Maternal and child health: Introduction,” n.d., p.2) (See Appendix 1 for more details). In other words, children and mothers constitute a significant portion of the global population and hence their healthcare is important in building a healthy future generation.
The author explains that nurses are prone to commit an error in medicine administration, especially during the process of transcribing and administering. Nurses are usually assigned to copy the doctor’s prescription for the handing out of the correct dosage.
The term ‘drug safety’ is used when it comes to evaluation of the correct prescription of medicine, as well as administration and dispensation of the same. Medication safety, on the other hand, revolves around errors that occur in the process of prescription, dispensation as well as at the level of administration.
He has quoted a 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health and pointed out that more than 22 million Americans age 12 and older - nearly 9% of the U.S. population - use illegal drugs. More than 23 million Americans age 12 and older are currently undergoing treatment to stop drug addiction (Cooper).
Child’s health is directly connected with the mother’s health in many ways. It should be noted that the health of the mother during pregnancy can shape the health of the infant. Even after the delivery, mother’s health may play significant roles in contributing to the child’s health as breast milk is the major food for an infant.
This paper investigates one problem that practitioners encounter in the nursing profession.
One of the main duties that nurses have is administering of medication to patients, which is a pretty complex and multistep process. Administering of medication entails things such
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