Heart failure is a disease characterized by the inability of the heart to pump enough blood in the vascular system leading to hypoperfusion of different organs and systems in the body. Whenever a person suffers from heart failure, there is a decrease in the cardiac output. This…
Whenever there is left sided heart failure the blood accumulates in the lungs first and then the pulmonary arteries and then right sided heart failure occurs. But, in this case, the patient suffers from right sided heart failure which means there would first be accumulation of blood in the right ventricle and then the right atrium. This accumulation of blood in the right atrium would lead a decreased venous return. This decreased venous return would then cause the accumulation of blood in the peripheral veins. The veins most affected are the veins in the leg. The gravitational force leads to the accumulation of blood in these veins. Accumulation of blood increases the hydrostatic pressure in these veins leading to the disturbance of starling’s forces and movement of fluid outside these vessels causing pretibial and ankle edema.
The cause behind irregular pulse can be simply identified by the atrial fibrillation. In atrial fibrillation, there is abnormal transmission of pulses from the transmitters from the atria into the purkinjee fibres of the ventricles. This abnormal transmission of impulses leads to abnormal patterns of contractions of ventricular muscles causing an irregular contraction and relaxation pattern and an abnormal cardiac cycle (Cotran, 1999). This abnoarmal cardiac cycle due to irregular transmission of impulses is what causes an irregular pulse.
Ramipril is a carboxylic derivative and belongs to a class of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. Ace inhibitors are those drugs that inhibit an enzyme Angiotensin converting enzyme. The major function of this enzyme is to convert angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2. The converted angiotensin 2 helps increase the blood pressure by several mechanisms. Some of these are: secretion of aldosterone which acts on the DCT in the kidney to increase the absorption of sodium and water, also the secretion of ADH which by its name the Anti Diuretic Hormone, ...
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(Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 Words)
“Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/635395-pathophysiology-and-pharmacology.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the following: drugs from natural sources; plants as a source of drugs ; microorganism drug sources; uses of natural products in drugs; drug design by computer modeling and strengths of computer modeling in drug design. The computer modeling in drug design holds a massive potential for the pharmaceutical industry
DEFINITION ESSAY: PHARMACOLOGY SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED TO: DATE OF SUBMISSION: INSTITUTE: Pharmacology is one of the multiple fields of study that fall under the broad umbrella of medicine. Other terms, closely related to pharmacology include pharmacy, pharmacist and pharmaceutical.
The Acid Base Disturbance in this patient is caused by a condition known as metabolic alkalosis. Consequently, this state occurs when the PH of the blood in arteries rise above 7.45 which is the maximum PH. The pH above 7.5 is termed as alkalemic. A general decline in hydrogen ion concentration or a surplus of base leads to alkalosis.
No inhalation of the spray should take place. An initial one-metered dose ought to be sprayed below the tongue at an attack’s onset, followed by another metered dose within a period of five minutes should pain relief not occur. It is recommended that it should not exceed two metered doses.
Absorption of the drug is dependent upon the dose total, duration of exposure, concentration of the dose and the site of exposure (Kwan, 2001). The drug absorbed well in the gastrointestinal system but undergoes extensive first pass hepatic transformation.
Considering the case study, the pathophysiology of metabolic alkalosis is common and generally occurs when bicarbonate is increased. This is caused by excessive loss of metabolic acids especially on excessive vomiting.
The most essential primary preventive measures are proper diet, avoidance of stress, stop smoking, regular exercise (Balakrishnan, 2004). However, age and gender is non-modifiable risk factors meaning there is nothing much that one can do to modify them. Five
This paper will describe the difference in presentation in patients suffering from bipolar disorder and generalized anxiety disorder using the DSM-5 criteria. This involves a thorough assessment for the patient’s under
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
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