Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome that occurs when the heart’s capacity to provide the body with enough blood to sustain its requirements or to adequately take in returning inflows is compromised due to any functional or structural impairment (Mann, 2010). There are…
There are left-ventricular, right-ventricular, acute, and chronic heart failures. An estimated 70 percent of the patient populations have been found to have systolic heart failure (Mann, 2010). Additionally, the most common etiology of the systolic heart failure is ischemic heart disease. The pure diastolic heart failure may be caused by hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and both hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathies.
Clinical manifestation of heart failure include weight gain, dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, peripheral edema, JVD, tachycardia, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites, fatigue, weakness, nausea, poor appetite, renal hypoperfusion, and chachexia. Neurohormonal responses to heart failure are adaptive at first, and then become deleterious when they are sustained. Modern treatment of heart failure is based on neurohormonal modulation. (Steimle, 2007)
Management of heart failure is a very complex issue that is why heart failure care needs to be delivered in a multi-professional manner. Although the standard of practise of managing heart failure has some consensus among healthcare providers, I based my heart failure disease management on the clinical guidelines that I developed at my organization. Using the clinical guidelines I was able to identify, summarize, and evaluate the highest quality evidence and most current data about prevention, diagnose, prognoses, and provide therapy including medications and cost-effectiveness. Using my clinical guidelines that I developed in the place I worked, I noted that there are four stages in the heart failure development namely stage A, B, C, and D. According to McDonagh et al. (2011), those patients who are in stage A and B usually do not have heart failure. However, they have risk factors that predispose them towards heart failure development. Patients in stage C comprise of those people with current or past ...
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(“Pathopharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words”, n.d.)
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(Pathopharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
“Pathopharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/638841-pathopharmacology.
The data that used in the study is secondary data from other resources. The following are the main topics in the study: 1.0. Title page 2.0. Problem statement 2.1. Importance of the study 2.2. Study objectives 3.0. Literature review 4.0. Study methodology 5.0.
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