The paper explores the pathophysiology of breast cancer and its effects on the breast tissue. The paper also explores how breast cancer is a progressive condition and can begin to effect systems, including those mentioned above, and should not be viewed as solely a female mammary tissue problem. …
This essay first traces the breast cancer as one of the most common cancers causing almost 7% of all cancer deaths and 2% of all deaths in the United States. Many people believe breast cancer affects only the breast tissue until the unfortunate situation of metastasis. There are many cases in which breast cancer and metastasis can affect a number of other systems, including the brain, liver and bone tissues. One of the most common signs of breast cancer is a lump in the breast, although other changes in the breast tissue such as thickening, changes in colour and swelling are also reported. The breast can also show signs of pain, although breast pain is common in women and should not be confused with breast cancer. As the disease progresses and metastasizes, a number of other symptoms can be seen. For bone metastases, the patient can expect to feel bone pain. Other symptoms of bone metastases include breakages in the bone due to weakened bone tissue and hypercalcemia, which would be picked up by routine examination. Breast carcinomas can also metastasize to the brain. The signs of a secondary brain tumour are numerous, and include consistent headache, changes in vision, seizures, stroke or brain haemorrhage, changes in mental status, difficulty with speech or other everyday actions, confusion, loss of control, uncontrolled bladder or bowel movements, back pain, more generalized pain, weakness, vomiting and nausea, double vision, slurred speech, and anxiety. (Gavrilovic & Posner, 2005). Finally, breast cancer can also metastasize to the liver. Signs that this has occurred include anorexia, confusion, fevers, nausea and weight loss (Yarbro, Wujcik & Gobel, 2011). Pathophysiological Causes of Breast Cancer All cancers have similar mechanisms in the way that they develop. All cancers are genetic in that a mutation or ...
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A single case study of a 58-year old woman suffering from advanced ovarian cancer, is considered in this study for in depth analysis. The article has pointed to the lacuna that exists in pain management in terms of interdisciplinary intervention and also the need for integration of “physical, physiological, social, and spiritual well-being” so that the patient experiences “comfort (…) (and) dignity (…) at the end of life” (Ferrel, Levy and Paice, 2008, p.575).
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Nursing professionals must comply with end of life ethical and legal standards. Discussion Nurses play a vital role in the patients’ end of life care. Nursing care includes acting as the patients’ counselor or shoulder to cry on. The nurses usually start the decision making processes during each end of life healthcare intervention.
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