The ultimate purpose of Healthcare Providers (HCPs) is the extension of non-discriminatory health services to all individuals.This implies that the age or ethnic is no barrier to access health facilities. Despite the noble intention of the healthcare community, this is not…
In the United Kingdom alone, 35,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year with 10,000 others dying from the diseases (The Prostate Cancer Charity, n.d., p1).
According to NCIN (2013) report, the rate of cancer incidence in the four countries in the UK increased significantly between 2008 and 2010 as compared to the period between 1993 and 1995. The report also suggested that 22.7-23.9 was the mortality rate between 2008 and 2010 (NCIN, 2013, p1). The fall in the mortality rate can be attributed to the rise in the number of people accessing PSA testing thus enabling early detection and identification of non-aggressive cancer (Moore et. al., 2009, p1594). According to Carter (2013), early detection is the best chance at reducing prostate cancer mortality rate (p 543). In spite of all the increased access to prostate cancer due to increased awareness among the UK citizens, the BME groups continue to exhibit worrying trends. NHS (2012, para. 1) estimates that 40,000 new cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed in the UK.
According to the Parliamentary Stakeholder Group (2012) report, the Black Caribbean and the Black African men living in the UK are thrice more vulnerable to getting prostate cancer than the white male. Other than the prevalence of the disease among the BME communities, the other worrying aspect of prostate cancer is the low awareness within this population. The Parliamentary Stakeholder Group (2012) report also states that only 37% of UK’s black males were aware of the existence of the disease in 2007. This is a grim figure compared to the 64% of the white male population within the same time and place. The report also suggests that only 15% of African Caribbean men were aware of their high susceptibility to the disease. The rate of prostate cancer incidence and mortality from the disease is highest in the black communities.
The inequality ...
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The main problem and actuality of this theme are prostate cancer, that affects African-American males within the United States in a disproportionate number compared to White males. African-American males are 1.7 times more likely to develop and 2-3 times more likely to die from prostate cancer than White males. Numerous reasons for this disparity exist: socioeconomic status, distrust, conflicting cultural beliefs etc.
The cancerous cell spread to other parts of the body and can cause pain, difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse, or erectile dysfunction (American Cancer Society, 2010). Though the specific cause of prostate cancer remains unknown, several factors such as diet, genetic, medication exposure and viral infection, have been implicated in its development.
(Howells 22). Contrary to these assumptions is the Wave Migration Theory, which occurred thousands of years after the disappearance of the land bridges in 3,000-4,000 B.C. The theory states that groups of migrants came by boat from the adjacent lands during the Neolithic period.
This paper aims to provide enlightened understanding of prostate cancer and the men who have acquired this disease.
In this paper, the pathology of this cancer will be discussed in order to have a thorough understanding of what a man with this type of cancer is undergoing.
According to the definition of the US National Institute of Health, it is a type of cancer that "forms in tissues of the prostate (a gland in the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum). Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men." (Definition of prostate cancer) Prostate is a part of the male reproductive system which is located in front of the rectum and underneath the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra.
Cancer occurs when specific cells in the body of the patient start multiplying. The multiplication is abnormal and uncontrolled (NMA, 2008). The reason why these cells start acting this way is not yet well known. It is suspected that it is a result of mutation, whereby the genetic make-up of the cell is affected, making the cell "to go mad" (Rosenberg et al, 2008).
Radiotherapy (RT) is perhaps the most common treatment of choice in patients with PC. However, results of treatment of PC are rather disappointing. A probable explanation for this could lie in the fact that more than 50% of PCs are seen in men 75 years of age.
First, the DHQ assesses the driving exposure and avoidance of situations which can potentially be risky, including driving at night, left hand turns, driving in unfamiliar areas, etc. the participants filled in their assessment
The use of brachy therapy for the treatment of prostrate cancer has been through a lot of evolutions. Primarily, researchers have looked at the effect of using the therapy alone as against using it together with other external medical aids. The evolution did not, however, happen without any challenges.