Lesson plan: PAIN MANAGEMENT Introduction: According to Marcia L. Meldrum (2003), “pain is the oldest medical problem and the universal affliction of mankind” (pp. 2470-2475). It is both a curse and a gift, since it also serves to alert us to changes in, or damages to, our body…
The American Pain Society labeled it as the “5th Vital Sign” (Campbell, 1995, as cited in Smeltzer & Bare, 2003, p. 217). As with all vital signs, doctors and allied health personnel continuously strive to keep it within acceptable parameters to maintain homeostasis. Pain management “encompasses all interventions used to understand and ease pain, and, if possible, to alleviate the cause of pain” (Krapp, 2002, p. 1804). It means that pain management is not just the intervention but also the assessment, evaluation, and continuous monitoring of pain. To better understand and treat pain, it is important to know how it is produced and transmitted to the brain. Elaine Marieb and Katja Hoehn (2006) talk about “noxious stimuli – a term for anything that damages the body” (A closer look section, "Pain: Sound the Alarm, But Pain Me Not!", Pain reception, para. 1), and how it can start a whole avalanche of chemical and neurological reactions which, reaching the brain, translate into pain. Different pain management techniques affect various body parts which may be involved in that reaction. Understanding specifically how an intervention works on pain is a key to choosing the best intervention for all kinds of pain. This lesson is geared to teaching students about different kinds of pain and how they affect the body; factors and barriers that may affect pain and pain management; proper and accurate pain assessment and the different tools used; different interventions, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic, and the formulation of nursing care plans used in the management of pain. We also tackle some specifics such as the World Health Organization's “three step ladder approach” to pain intervention. Objectives: - Given five minutes of the time, students will elaborate two of the four concepts of physiology of pain as discussed in class. -For fifteen minutes prior to the discussion proper, students will discuss common misconceptions about pain. - Given a situational example, students will describe three technological applications in pain management. - In an oral presentation, students will identify ten of the 12 discussed pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for pain. - Given a hospital scenario involving a child, students will discuss the role and responsibilities of the nurse in the pain management. - Given five minutes of the class time, students will identify and explain three out of the four components of pain assessment discussed in class. - Given a situation that involves a 65-year old woman with back pain and shortness of breath, students will develop a nursing care plan and evaluate the patient’s response to the pain management. -Without the aid of class notes, student will describe two out of the three identified barriers to effective pain management. Teaching/Learning theory: 1. Experiential Learning Theory – This is the learning theory developed by Carl Rogers, applied primarily to adult learners. This learning theory designates the teacher as a facilitator of learning since everyone has the potential to learn (Zimring, 1994, pp. 411-422). Rationale: According to Zimring (1994), experiential learning contains a principle that involves doing, living, and acting out what you have learned to make it more meaningful (pp. 411-422). Pain management is an applied skill. Through its application (i.e. by role play activity), learning can be made more meaningful. Another principle of experiential lear ...
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