The research "Preventable Hospitalizations for Congestive Heart Failure" is a quantitative research study conducted in the United States where data of national discharge conducted by National Center for Health Sciences from 1995 to 2009…
The independent variable in the study is from the year 1995 to 2009 while the dependent variable is preventable hospitalization for congestive heart failure among adults in sampled hospitals (Will et al., 2012).
The study design in the article is cross-sectional research design using a sample of age, sex, and race of the patients. The sample size is 501 to 525 hospitals representing one percent of United States hospitalizations. The study uses stratified sampling with the sample characteristics being age, sex, and race of patients hospitalized of CHF in participating hospitals. Data was collected from the 1995 to 2009 National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (Will et al., 2012). Data collection methods were entrance records by hospitals of the CHF patients admitted between 1995 and 2009. The procedures conducted were the removal of severe CHF patients to ensure the sample taken included that of patients whose hospitalization was preventable (Will et al., 2012). Data analysis involved weighting CHF hospitalization from 1995 to 2009 for the people above 18 and summation of numbers of three consecutive years to form 7 periods whose rates were calculated 100,000 of the population. Standardization, development of confidence intervals, Z-tests, and other statistical tests followed the analysis. The results depict increased rates of CHF hospitalization among all ages, and blacks have higher hospitalization rates than whites (Will et al., 2012).
The strengths of the article are the in-depth data analysis and use of large sample data. The study limitations are non-reporting of 17% to 21% of the CHF hospitalizations and classification of people as multiracial from 2000 onwards. Another liability is the inability to exclude CHF hospitalizations occurring from transfers from other facilities (Will et al., 2012).
Heart Failure in Hispanics is a qualitative research study done in the United States where the risk factors, etiological conditions, diagnosis and treatment, and barriers to health care are done on Hispanic Patients. ...
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On the basis of her symptoms, her current medications and the past medical history, four major underlying pathologies can be identified which include; congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, hypertension and angina pectoris. Congestive Heart Failure is a pathological condition of the heart where the heart is unable to pump adequate amount of blood to the whole body according to its needs.
On the other hand, not all patients, especially those with more serious indications, find relief from these possible treatment practices (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy, n.d.). Treatment of heart failure may include medication, such as, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors that lessen the pressure in the blood vessels; beta blockers that reduce the heart’s tendency to beat faster; and antiarrhythmia medications that keep the rhythm regular and prevent sudden cardiac death.
Opening Paragraph b. The purpose of this paper II. Incidence of Congestive Heart Failure in the United States a. Discussion of the Prevalence of CHF b. Statistics of Morbidity and Mortality III. Pathophysiology of Congestive Heart Failure a. In depth discussion of CHF b.
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