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Approcah to Care - Breast Cancer - Research Paper Example

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Approcah to Care - Breast Cancer

Etiology of Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common kind of cancer that is prevalent among women in U.S. It is estimated that about 192,000 new cases of breast cancer are found in U.S. alone each year. Substantial clinical evidence suggests that hormones play a critical role in the etiology of various cancers and breast cancer is one of them. Estrogen is the chief stimulant in proliferation of breast cells. The presence of progesterone accelerates proliferation rate further. This is evident from the fact that during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, the breast mitotic activity is noticed at its peak (Henderson et al 2002). Clinical Manifestation of Breast Cancer They can be described as per the following. 1. Lump formation or thickening on breasts 2. Peeling, flaking or scaling of the breast skin or nipple 3. Bloody discharge from the nipple 4. Redness of the skin over breast 5. Change in shape and size of a breast (Mayo Clinic 2012). Diagnosis and Staging When cancer is detected in the breast, a doctor proceeds to find the stage of the disease. It usually starts with a physical examination by a nurse or doctor. Ultrasound and mammography are crucial in diagnosis of breast cancer. The findings of these tests are further confirmed through a tissue biopsy. Mammography is done by taking X-ray of the breast. Ultrasonography is done to ascertain whether a lump is filled with fluid or it is a solid lump. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) takes several images of the breast to find lesions usually not detectable through ultrasound or mammography. According to the American Cancer Society, breast MRI is advisable to the women who are in high-risk category. The advantage is that it is non-invasive and the person is not exposed to any radioactivity. Breast MRI is a new technology and can be used as an aid to other conventional diagnostic tests (Breast Cancer Diagnosis, 2012). Different stages in the breast cancer can be described as per the following (Stages of Breast Cancer, 2012). Stage I Stage I is bifurcated into two sub-stages as per the following. Stage IA This is a primary stage when the tumor has not spread outside the breast and it is equal to or smaller than 2 centimeters in size. Stage IB In this stage, tumor is not found in the breast but the cancer cells of the size between 0.2 and 2 millimeters are detected in the lymph nodes; or when tumor is equal to or smaller than 2 centimeters along with small clusters of cancer cells (with the size between 0.2 and 2 millimeters) detected in the lymph nodes. Stage II is bifurcated into two as per the following. Stage IIA No tumor is detected in the breast but cance ...Show more

Summary

Approach to Care – Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Abnormal cells growth in any part of the body such as breast, colon, prostate, lungs is known as cancer. Our body is made up of billions and trillions of cells and they continue to grow, divide and die in an orderly manner; however, cancerous cell growth is abnormal and without any decay…
Author : whoeger
Approcah to Care - Breast Cancer essay example
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