Etiology of Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common kind of cancer that is prevalent among women in U.S. It is estimated that about 192,000 new cases of breast cancer are found in U.S. alone each year. Substantial clinical evidence suggests that hormones play a critical role in the etiology of various cancers and breast cancer is one of them. Estrogen is the chief stimulant in proliferation of breast cells. The presence of progesterone accelerates proliferation rate further. This is evident from the fact that during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, the breast mitotic activity is noticed at its peak (Henderson et al 2002). Clinical Manifestation of Breast Cancer They can be described as per the following. 1. Lump formation or thickening on breasts 2. Peeling, flaking or scaling of the breast skin or nipple 3. Bloody discharge from the nipple 4. Redness of the skin over breast 5. Change in shape and size of a breast (Mayo Clinic 2012). Diagnosis and Staging When cancer is detected in the breast, a doctor proceeds to find the stage of the disease. It usually starts with a physical examination by a nurse or doctor. Ultrasound and mammography are crucial in diagnosis of breast cancer. The findings of these tests are further confirmed through a tissue biopsy. Mammography is done by taking X-ray of the breast. Ultrasonography is done to ascertain whether a lump is filled with fluid or it is a solid lump. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) takes several images of the breast to find lesions usually not detectable through ultrasound or mammography. According to the American Cancer Society, breast MRI is advisable to the women who are in high-risk category. The advantage is that it is non-invasive and the person is not exposed to any radioactivity. Breast MRI is a new technology and can be used as an aid to other conventional diagnostic tests (Breast Cancer Diagnosis, 2012). Different stages in the breast cancer can be described as per the following (Stages of Breast Cancer, 2012). Stage I Stage I is bifurcated into two sub-stages as per the following. Stage IA This is a primary stage when the tumor has not spread outside the breast and it is equal to or smaller than 2 centimeters in size. Stage IB In this stage, tumor is not found in the breast but the cancer cells of the size between 0.2 and 2 millimeters are detected in the lymph nodes; or when tumor is equal to or smaller than 2 centimeters along with small clusters of cancer cells (with the size between 0.2 and 2 millimeters) detected in the lymph nodes. Stage II is bifurcated into two as per the following. Stage IIA No tumor is detected in the breast but cance
Approach to Care – Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Abnormal cells growth in any part of the body such as breast, colon, prostate, lungs is known as cancer. Our body is made up of billions and trillions of cells and they continue to grow, divide and die in an orderly manner; however, cancerous cell growth is abnormal and without any decay…
As genes are the basic control machine of the cells, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. When compared with the normal cells, where damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system, tumor cells do not have any repair mechanism for the damaged DNA and there is a constant proliferation of cells without displaying senescence, hence, generating a series of abnormal cells, with altered cellular pathways for uncontrolled proliferation, figuring malignant tumors (Alberts et al., 2007; Katzang et al., 2009).
The most occurring type is ductal carcinoma and this begins in the ducts of the breast which move milk from the breast to the nipple. The second most found breast cancer is lobular carcinoma which starts in lobule, which is the part of the breast which actually produces milk.
Proceeding age, family history of breast cancer, and extended reproductive phase are the some major aspect related to this disease. Up to 10 percent of breast cancer in western countries like US, is due to strong genetic predisposition (Dixon, p.25). Doctors can detect breast cancer initially after approximately three years after menopause.
Operable breast cancer is characterized by the presence of malignant cells within the milk ducts and other regions of the breast, which sometimes may include the local lymph nodes. The lumps or growths can be removed surgically provided that at the time of operation the patient does not have overt metastases.
Public health objectives can range from targeting fairly benign diseases such as the common cold, to life-threatening and devastating types of cancer. Health itself is defined by the World Health Organization as being a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 1948, p1), suggesting that public health operatives need to look at the whole picture rather than merely preventing disease.
Physicians in those early days may not have known what the condition was, but they knew that something destructive was taking place. Unfortunately, breast cancer was considered a taboo, more of a punishment than an uncontrollable illness, which meant that very few diagnoses were made before the individual succumbed to the devastation of cancer.
ultimately minimize and prevent the occurrence of breast cancer, statistics and current trends still manifest the preponderance of women contracting breast cancer. The researchers’ personal experiences on having known close relatives and associates’ families with some
Incidents of breast cancer are found more in white women in comparison to Hispanic, Asian or African-American women. The paper aims at exploring associated risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment processes and breast cancer prevention measures.
Several risk factors
numerous research studies regarding neoadjuvant treatment for persons affected by breast cancer, histological treatment effects in the lymph nodes and primary lesions are considerably associated with the diagnosis. Various diverse histological measures are presently employed to
2 pages (500 words)Research Paper
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