Incorporate Comorbidity Problem Name Institution Question One The abnormalities of the brain and the nervous system are a factor in most of the health conditions, especially mental health conditions (Porth & Matfin, 2009). In schizophrenia, which happens to be a psychiatric disorder, excesses in neurotransmitters, that is glutamate, dopamine and serotonin, which transmit information to the brain, might aid the condition’s development…
Neurons, which are brain cells, are responsive to distinctive types of neurotransmitters having receptors built purposely for them (Porth & Matfin, 2009). Those neurons that tend to be sensitive to certain neurotransmitters cluster together, thereby forming circuits in the brain, responsible for processing certain types of information. Neurotransmitters are discharged from a neuron at the time it signals another brain cell; these neurotransmitters are discharged to the small space amid the two neurons known as the synapse (Porth & Matfin, 2009). Inside the synapse, the neurotransmitters tend to attach to the receptors at the ending of another neuron, thereby affecting the action of the new neuron. Consequently, the new neuron absorbs as much of the neurotransmitter as it possibly can and then discharges the excess back to the synapse. After that, the first neuron goes ahead to reabsorb the excess; this process through a process is referred to as reuptake (Porth & Matfin, 2009). In the brain, there are various neurotransmitters, two of which are involved in schizophrenia symptoms, that is dopamine and glutamate (Craft, Gordon, & Tiziani, 2011). Dopamine happens to be primarily responsible for movement and thoughts, while, at the same time being related with novelty seeking, or concern in new experiences, as well as reward. Apparently, illegal drugs such as cannabis, cocaine and methamphetamine act by affecting the function of dopamine in the brain; therefore, dopamine is related with feelings of not only pleasure but also well-being (Craft et al., 2011). Dopamine paths within the brain tend to be extremely specialized, thereby being capable of influencing different types of behavior or thinking. Thus, people with high intensities of dopamine in parts of the brain might also suffer from psychotic symptoms or even paranoid thinking that are symptoms of schizophrenia (Craft et al., 2011). Glutamate happens to be other neurotransmitter, which might play a significant role in schizophrenia. Glutamate plays a key part in learning, formation as well as encoding of memory (Craft et al., 2011). There are hallucinogenic drugs such as PCP used in blocking glutamate receptors; however, amphetamines, PCP are capable of causing paranoia, which apes schizophrenic symptoms. In instances where people suffer from schizophrenia and use PCP, it worsens their symptoms (Craft et al., 2011). Research shows that an interaction between dopamine and glutamate happens to be the center of schizophrenia; nonetheless, dopamine receptors are capable of reducing glutamate action; in case there are unusually many dopamine receptors, the effects of glutamate will be blocked. Question Two Reports by the American Psychological Association (2001) ...
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